Algorithm: Method & Data Structure     Last updated on 2011/2555     12     10, a full moon day;

IFF code (snippets) also see: keyword;

The most challenging development is algorithm development. Because 1 algorithm relates to N software / hardware. Algorithms are language independent, therefore control-flow, data-flow, logic-flow, etc. of algorithms can be presented in any type / form of languages. Depending on organization's internal policy, algorithms can be worth tons of gold, or algorithms may be free to public;

Approx. 61 logical knowledge are available to read;


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WHEN you no longer know WHERE the (particles) ... ; Baoding Liu UNCERTAIN PROGRAMMING, computer programming, ISBN 0-471-35994-7, 2000;
CLR reusable concurrency

To do parallel computing, for multi-processors / multi-core architecture;

MSDN Await;  

MSDN Barrier;

MSDN BlockingQueue;

MSDN BoundedBuffer;

MSDN CountdownLatch;

MSDN LockFreeStack;

MSDN Parallel.ForAll loop a.k.a. Partition Loop Tiling;

MSDN Reduce;

MSDN SpinWait;

MSDN ThinEvent;

For Microsoft .NET Framework only; [MSDN Magazine; June 2007]

Also see: Reduce in sysDevelopmentAnalysis.htm;


Combinational circuits; recursive search D Testing algorithm; D-algorithm [1 gate at 1 time] requires longer test-time than FAN, PODEM, ... ;
Combinational circuits; recursive search FAN Testing algorithm;
Combinational circuits; recursive search PODEM Testing algorithm;
Determine structural proteins Ab Initio Method by molecular dynamics physics and sequence data; []
Gene coding Genetic Algorithm Constraint handling; Functional evaluation; Method; Operational crossover; Operational mutation; Optimization; Procedure; Process initialization; Process selection; Structural representation; [Uncertain Programming; Baoding Liu; 1999]
artificial intelligence keyword Michio Kaku Pg. 108, PHYSICS OF THE IMPOSSIBLE, MICHIO KAKU, 2008, wrote: "Imagine that you are sitting inside the box and you don't understand a word of Chinese. Assume you have a book that allows you to rapidly translate Chinese and manipulate its characters. If a person asks you a question in Chinese, you merely manipulate there strange looking characters, without understanding what they mean, and give credible answers. " ...
Kinetic energy at temperature T in a material Metropolis Algorithm; Also see: Simulated Annealing Method;
N-dimensional molecular movement Monte Carlo aka Stochastic simulation Method: For predicting protein structures; Can be used in bioinformatics, nuclear physics, and ... ; Materials engineering characteristics; also see: Extreme DA;
Numerical integration Euler Method: 2D; F(x,t) by Time; For modeling and simulation; Can be used in bioinformatics, voice pattern matching, and ... ; Also see: Random call parameter;
Numerical integration Runge-Kutta Method: 2D; F(x,t) by Time; For modeling and simulation; Can be used in bioinformatics, voice pattern matching, and ...
Numerological dimension OS.TXT; BASIC.HTML; AI OS; Distance in time aka Quality;

To access indexes


In database, to index keys and pointers of records

To do reductions Binary operator Average

Binary operator Count

Binary operator Max

Binary operator Min

Binary operator Sum

N to 1 entity relationship; Not 1 to N; Not N to N;

Also see: Aggregate function parameters, which might be opposite to manifold, because differentiable cannot define reduction;

Average is (x,y)=>new{x[0]+y, x[1]+1} where selection (x)=>x[0]/x[1]; Count is (x,y)=>x+1; Max is (x,y)=>x>y?x:y; Min is (x,y)=>x<y?x:y; Sum is (x,y)=>x+y;

To either queue or stack


Can apply LIFO, FIFO at both ends; Also see: enqueue, and then dequeue;

To find an element in a list

Hash Search

Hashing is efficient

To link nodes together


In tree, nodes can be classified 3 different categories – child node, parent node, and root node;

IFF numerological dimension, also see: C Sequence Number ... ;

To list

Linear List

To be in order linearly

To list elements



In any order, elements can be added to a list, or elements can be removed from a list; [List applies pointer. Therefore, multiple types of data can be grouped together as a whole, and then pointing to each wholes (data structure) becomes list.]

To list nodes

[Singly: A pointer to node where the node itself contains data-structure and then the pointer is assigned into another pointer which points the next node]

Linked List

[Doubly: A queue can be implemented, if an element of the queue is a pointer to an array, and then multiple arrays can be linked, but calculate the buffer for memory constraints – leaks can occur]

A pointer is needed for singly linked list; Two pointers are needed for doubly linked list

To queue in FIFO order


Elements in a queue become data structure

To represent a data


An entity in a data set

To represent a Node


The highest uppermost node of a tree

To represent data-elements in a record


Each field stands for a data type, and different data types can be assigned into fields

To represent elements


A location in a tree

To represent Node


Node ≡ Leaf

End of a brunch is called Leaf;

IFF a curve terminates at both ends, also known as folium, and the IFF time, un-common Leaf behaves as loop;

To schedule events in time


One of the OS features;

System time oriented, and applied in timely events applications

To search

Binary Search

In heap, tail recursive consumes more memory space than embedded recursive search [pg. 144-145, Sethi, 1989]

The data-item to be searched should be known;

In software engineering, mem leak can occur, if not checking the possible recursive quantities. Because each recursive call takes mem space

To search elements

Tree Search

Branching by nodes provide path to find an element

To search sequentially

Linear Search

If a list is short, it is recommended to use, otherwise it will slow

To sort Sort Regardless of whether literally or figuratively, only alphabetical sort and chronicle sort exist;

To sort

Shell Sort

Created by Donald Shell;

To order data

To sort

Insertion Sort

Not recommended to sort arrays;

Recommended to sort linked lists

To sort

Merge Sort

Recommended to sort when numbers of sorted-lists merge into a sorted-list

To sort

Quick Sort


To sort

Bubble Sort

Exchange sort to a list;

For example, Bubble Sort Sample, by Sun's Forte for Java, Community Edition v.1, 2000;

To sort

Binary Tree

Each node must contain an unique key

To sort

Heap Sort

Efficient; i.e. Repaginating by MS Office

To sort

Radix Sort

Same as Digital Sort; efficient

To sort

Digital Sort

Same as Radix Sort; LSB is sorted first

To stack in LIFO order

Stack; In Win OS, i.e. %PATH%\ipsec6 /? <enter>

Addresses of procedures, addresses of functions, variables and parameters are pushed and popped;

To store


Record of data by magnetic-ferric oxide

To store database indexes

B Tree

In database, specified row or record can be found quickly by its index

To structure different kinds of data


Data type of elements must not be the same like array

To structure same kinds of data


Data type of elements must be the same; Also see: Static control array; Dynamic control array;

To transform


Between mapped numerical value into correspondent data

To use memory portion

[Lexical scope is not Microsoft standard, it is AT&T standard]


[If available, all buffers out of lexical scope must be checked before compilation]

Only in a run time, by blocks, by a program

To verify digital signature

SHA, Secure Hash Algorithm


Compute 160 bits to hash; also called Message Digest; To secure sender-receiver’s message or data

To multithread

Threaded Tree

i.e. after 5 is inserted, if the LEAF points to 70; after 70 is inserted, if the LEAF points to 9; after 9 is inserted, if the LEAF points to 81

If a leaf is a pointer, pointing to a node in a tree; Read  Diagram: Binary Search Tree, Insertion first;

2D 01 to sort [Think of C-Number 360˙ Tree here later how to relate to 2D Radix 2]

Your own sorting algorithm; Note for Asimo Ukon heuristic reasoning: searching without sorting can also be considered heuristic;

The fastest 2D radix 2 algorithm;

Create the 2D radix 2 algorithm, and prove that it is the fastest


Basic understanding of logic for novice programmers:   Syntax vs. Semantics;    Hardware makes software deployable;   Data types in programming languages; Also see: Code Shortcuts; Script; Wireless;


Brunch, a.k.a. brunching: leaves must not link to each other, even though root may be the same; i.e. file sharing;


Linked List Structure: ;


Pointer a.k.a. PTR: In programming, a memory address; In AD, resource record's [i.e. such as: AD DC RR SRV service locator record, CNAME record, MX DNS RR, SOA RR, ... ] 1 pointer maps 1 IP address into FQDN;


Push vs. Pop compares to Put vs. Take     Remember: Time . Space . Action, oriental thought;

WHEN PUSH to be kept / saved / stored / ... , and then WHERE POP to be deployed / referenced / used / ... , so that FIFO, LIFO, ... can be understood;

WHEN PUT to be placed with flag, and then WHERE TAKE to be taken away with flag, so that flag, mutex, semaphore, ... can be understood;


Stack: FIFO, and LIFO are Linear / Sequential / Series / Not random, can perform static behavior and dynamic behavior; Dynamic / Random stack is rarely seem, but essential in nama programming & AI, should not be in static behavior; Also see: Queue;