Computing Measurement     Last updated on 2016/2560 8 18, a full moon day;


IFF languages in Asia, also see: nippon Unit;

Approx. 295 units are available to read; Also see: Converter; Measurement related abbreviation; Meter; Multiplier; Schematic Symbols; Units' functionalities;




Symbol or text


value or equivalent


All remarks <= s-3 without heterodyned indexes AND complexity < 3· less than three dot products;

millibar   Nippon Standard 2,3 dimensional; 3,4 dimensional; Digital; Hyperspace;
  Existence of nights of no moon day;

\ / \ /

12 ACT2 times per year,

IFF 2 diff allocation

A Myanmar's imaginary dimensional hyperspace crafts; Possible 1 vector direction of our universe in ACT2 and ACT3 stages;

Also see: Global Suzuki; Symmetry Breaking; Time.Space; Water;

Dark energy related; No moon day;

Also see: ACT3 108 configuration, parallel time development is in progress ... ;

Digital Compass   16 directions Solar Power; CASIO;
Altimeter   from -700m to m Solar Power; CASIO;

from -2300ft to 32800ft;

Barometer   from 260 hPa/mb to 1100 hPa/mb Solar Power; CASIO;

from 7.65 inHg to 32.45 inHg;

Thermometer   from -18 °C  to 60 °C Solar Power; CASIO;

from 14 °F  to 140 °F;

      Nama prediction Biometric nama prediction; It can be developed by scanning neuro-electrodes flows of human being; Factors are: neuro-electrodes pattern recognition with azimuth, clockwise/counter-clockwise, left/right, up/down 1D slopes, and ... ; N;
      Not available yet; Wearable-computer prototype is already available; June, 2003, Pioneer Corp., Japan;; Organic film electro luminescent display and wearable PC ...
      dB/m per direction Sound-beam; Still in research; Official unit is not available yet to public; A STM of Asimo;
  #x AGP #Mc/s   Graphics speed at bus i.e. 4X AGP 266Mc/s, 8X AGP 266Mc/s, ...; VGA card; AGP; Higher the x numbers, faster the accelerator, faster the accelerator, better the performance imaging is;
  #x#x#   Pixel quantity in x-axis x Pixel quantity in y-axis x Lookup buffer's bits in quantity i.e. A cursor in hardware spec.: 64x64x16 means 64 pixels in x-axis; 64 pixels in y-axis; 16 bit color; Bitmapped;

i.e. A cursor in hardware spec.: 32x32x2 means 32 pixels in x-axis; 32 pixels in y-axis; 2 bit black and white; Bitmapped;

i.e. 12/12 per second;

Number/number per second;

24/24 per second;

  Human being's mathematical numerical multiplication rate / skill / intelligent / ... Without using a calculator, in Korea, average middle school students can calculate 19/19 [NHK news; 6/6/2005], and multiplication rate of human being's STM, LTM, and visual recognition measurement can reach up to 99/99 where specific number AND (variable OR constant) AI algorithm can be developed;
  12/24   Time period: hour format 12 hour / 24 hour; Mostly use in digital clock's display; In year 2000s, advanced digital watch/clock uses either solar energy   or kinetic energy; 
  24/7   Time period: hour/day format 24 hour / 7 day; 24/7 might not be a computing unit however it is a computer security usage;
  > number min   

> number °C

  Time period vs. Temperature 2007 Toyota Corolla's front head light bulbs have been measured as >5 min   >200 °C, i.e. Philips 9006 C1 12V 55W P22d bulbs;





In 2004, optical zoom for public are: Optical zoom (2X) (4X) (8X) (...), higher the number of X, closer the object becomes; Digital zoom;




150 Mbps

CD-ROM, DVD drive data rate;

i.e. 52x means (52 * 150) Mbps;




Width, Height, and Depth

Device dimension; Also see: UV fan, UV tube, ... ;

#D TFT LCD 3D TFT LCD   Dimension per Thin Film Transistor Liquid Crystal Display World's first dimensional monitor-display in 1999; In 2003, PVA provides 178 degrees viewing angle;;   Also see: LG: ;
#Inches TFT LCD x" TFT LCD   Diagonal displayable distance per TFT LCD Longer the x number of diagonal displayable distance, larger the viewable monitor-display is; In 1997, world's first 30" TFT-LCD was developed by SAMSUNG;  
#mm #mm     Inch or mm dimensional measurement of UV cable, UV fan, UV tube, ... ; In 2004, (UV tube (2~13")), (UV fan (2~80mm)), ... ; Also see: Display's pitch;
10/100/1000 xx/xxx/xxxx   10 Mbps Ethernet / 100 Mbps Fast Ethernet / 1000 Mbps Gigabit Ethernet Network's estimated bandwidth; In common, Ethernet bandwidth is based on frequency of either electron or photon; Also see: PARC;

But, the latest and the most advanced Japanese wearable-computer, might not deploy neither electron nor photon in the near future;

33/66/133 xx/xx/xxx   33 Mc/s / 66 Mc/s / 133 Mc/s System bus's speed; In common, PC's system bus speed can be set by jumpers; [In any time-sensitive system, the most concerning bottleneck like disk-data-access-time];
66/133 / 266/533 xx/xxx / xxx/xxx   High speed PCI 66/133 is up to 133 MTS, up to 1 GB/s; 266/533 is up to 533 MTS, up to 4.3 GB/s;
100/200/400 xxx/xxx/xxx   100 Mbps / 200 Mbps / 400 Mbps In 2004, transfer rate of FireWire;
900/1800/1900 xxx/xxxx/xxxx   Wireless Mc/s GSM/GPRS + EDGE; 2006; 800 Mc/s is only available by CDMA;
absorbed dose rate SI Gy/s Gray per second; [];
acceleration SI m/s2 Also see: Speed; Velocity;
acceleration     m · s-2

To simulate: commonly use 2 non energy mapped clocks must be synchronized first; Also see: Second; G; g;

To simulate orbiter machine to/from ground station: propagational delay time becomes fallacy with non energy mapped clocks;

amount of substance concentration   SI mol/m3 [];
amount of substance concentration     mol · m-3 Also see: mol; dimension;
ampere A SI 1A ≈ 6.241506 E electron/s [ Without energy map ]; SI electric current; Sometimes, "amp" is used, however, "amp" is neither SI Name nor Symbol; Electrons per second;

milli-ampere = mA = 6.241506 * 1015 e/s;

microampere = µA = 6.241506 * 1012  e/s;

nano-ampere = nA = 6.241506 * 109  e/s;

[In 2004, this DOMAIN recommends pA, fA for longer battery life in mobile computing];

Also see: Random call parameter;

  µA / V2   MOS Inverter's parameter i.e. nMOS ((VT0,n = 0.4V) (µnCox = 55 µA/V2 ) (W/L ratio = 8));

i.e. pMOS ((VT0,p = -0.9V) (µpCox = 21 µA/V2 ) (W/L ratio = 10));

For Monbusho level developers only: If VDD = 1.1 V, calculate the BL switch's Vth at Π/2 in C sequence number at brunching factor 4;


aka mAX2

  Cell level stimulation time period [potential diff therefore V] by density Commonly use rechargeable and removable battery; 1200mAh Li-ion; 1800mAh Li-ion; 2100mAh Ni-MH; 2500mAh Ni-MH; 4000mAh Li-ion;
  mAh   eneloop cell In 2008, Sanyo's eneloop cell batteries are available as: AAA 800mAh Ni-MH, AA 2000mAh Ni-MH, world's 1st rechargeable economically 1eneloop=1000alkaline;
angular acceleration SI rad/s2 http://physics/nist/gov;
angular acceleration   rad · s-2 To simulate: commonly use 2 non energy mapped clocks must be synchronized first; Also see: Second; G; g;
angular degree deg or o   Angular degree has been used in co-ordinates, on planes, in EM directions, and etc.; Degree temperature is different than angular degree;
angular velocity SI rad/s http://physics/nist/gov;
angular velocity   rad · s-1
area   SI m2 Square meter; Meter square;
atomic mass unit amu   (1/12) mass of C12;

(1/12) mass of 12C;

Atomic mass = atomic weight;

High energy physics in nm particle, pm particle technology is out of Myanmar knowledge; But, | | | | ...




Byte per second

Data transfer rate

becquerel Bq SI s-1 Radionuclide activity,   http://physics/nist/gov;




either 1 or 0

True or not-true logic where TRUE is 1, FALSE is 0;

Magnet or not-magnet location where magnet is 1, not-magnet is 0;

High or low voltage where high voltage is 1, low voltage is 0;

On or Off where drive-current into FD SOI transistor high is on, its leakage-current from the transistor low  is off;

Also see: Duo-binary bit; BL in AG AND flash;

bit: quadbit



4 bits:

In data communication, either one of following combinations is called quadbit: 0000, 0001, 0010, 0011, 0100, 0101, 0110, 0111, 1000, 1001, 1010, 1011, 1100, 1101, 1110, and 1111.

bit: qubit quantum bit   Quantum entanglement Optical computing uses 1, 0, and qubit; Optical computer might decode high volt(1), low volt(0) for its control, and 2n where qubit might be for n data "ultra fast computing"; Quantum computer;
bits/color -bit digital   Bit per color In 2008, SHARP's display usage; Switchable VGA vs. QVGA; e.g. if RGB, 18-bit digital means 6 bits/color;
bits/pixel     Bit per pixel Indexed color resolution; Larger the number of colors in bits/pixel, better and more realistic color of a pixel; i.e. 24bits/pixel is more photo realistic than 8bits/pixel's 256 colors; Measuring color buffer lookup table;
Blades / Chassis     Blade-servers per chassis Also see: IBM BladeCenter Servers usage; Blade / Chassis and Blade / Rack;




Bits per second

Data transfer rate; World smallest 40Gbps optical transmitter was developed by Hitachi in 2003; In 2005, Fujitsu and HHI produces 640 Gbps optical fiber processing;




8 bits

Data unit

  BTU   Air condition measurement Dimensions (High and Length and Width), Climate, and Insulation of area; 3 primary conditions must be considered for an interior air condition; British Thermal Unit; Also see: EER; BTU/Pound/Fahrenheit;
c/s c/s   frequency cycles per second, OR cycles / second, OR c/s;

Nowadays technology's the285 most important "time" as11 in95 "light rate" aka light as11 frequency;

In 2010, Nagoya University and Tokyo University announced that energy can be created from heat to electricity by material engineering technical breakthrough;

C/T Column / Thumbnail   Column per Thumbnail Art-manuscript's unit for adjusting columns and rows. Default column per thumbnail is 5. Default thumbnail per page is 40. Microsoft recommends 5C/10T for 640x480 screen resolution, 6C/18T for 800x600 screen resolution, and 9C/36T for 1024x768 screen resolution. Also see: Microsoft SDK Tool; HTML Help Workshop v.4.7
calories per gram per degree Celsius cal/g/°C   Matter's special property Specific heat; Temperature varies along with substance's gram g, and calories cal of heat; 

Also see: Temperature; [And, also think of how heat and temperature vary while heterodyning waves "such as microwave oven", also see Gc/s V];

candela cd SI 1 cd

= 1 cdS


= 1 cdW

[ Without energy map ]; SI brightness of light; Luminous intensity;

[ 1 cdS = at solid T of platium100%, radiation from ( "blackbody" = 1.667 * 10-6sq. m of surface of radiating object) ];

[ 1 cdW = 1/683 W emitting radiant energy at f 5.4 * 1014 c/s  in 1 steradian solid angle ];

catalytic activity concentration   SI kat/m3 Katal per cubic meter; Also see: Catalytic activity; Katal;


cd per square meter cd/m2     Brightness; In 2004, Sony's OLED display's brightness is 150cd/m2; In 2005, NEC mass-produces 400 cd/m2 luminance; Also see: SI luminance;
centi meter cm   Display length;

10^-2 is centi;

In computing, display's size is measured 1D diagonally; Also see: in, inches; In common, display length is not  measured in 2D i.e. horizontal/vertical length; 
Characters per line char / line   Display option 16 char display per line mono+serial LCD module; 40 char / 2 lines mono+serial LCD module;
Characters per line char / line   Print option Reflection; IBM; File>>Page Setup>>Page Options; Also see: Lines per page;
Chipset Chipset   Chipset per bus In computing, chipset can be overviewed as a computing unit because combinational options of chipset's functionalities can be adjusted logically/physically; Chipset's scalability, processing speed, and ... mostly depends on clock's cycling rate; Also see: ACER:; But, chipset's functionality constraint has been Socket;
      Concurrent user Server’s session (assuming that 1 user = 1 session); Server performance; i.e. In 2001, PeopleSoft Financials (software-server) performs workload of 4,600 concurrent users 
Connection per second Connection / s   Specific OSI layer connection per second

Also see: DuobinaryOSI.htm;

In telecommunicating and networking, specific OSI layer's connections [i.e. OSI layer 2, 3, 4, ... ] can be measured to compare performance among hardware devices; [Higher the number of OSI layer, harder to measure the connection / s];

Monbusho level engineers only: develop characteristics of connection/s among OSI layers;

coulomb C   1 A * s Quantity of electric charge;
coulomb C SI s · A Electric charge; Quantity of electricity;

Also see: 1D [ Without energy map ];




No. of characters per inch

CPI; Also see Font

Mono-space font: constant width for each character

Proportional font: character width varies (cpi must be averaged); Also see: Pixel;




No. of characters per second

CPS; Also see ppm

Except laser printer; printer’s speed

currency per time Dollar / time period   Cost of system i.e. $/day, $/hour, $/minute, $/second, and ...; Cost of system =  Licensing cost + Maintaining cost + Operating cost + ...; Where licensing cost may include per log on, per machine, per server, per session, and so on;
currency per user per time $ / user / time period   Cost of system i.e. $10 per user per year; $ per user per month; $ per user per day;
current density   SI A/m2 Also see: ampere; dimension;


cycles per ms c/s   DRAM module's refreshing rate While operating DRAM, its refresh rate can be measured; i.e. 64K cycles per 128 ms 256MB DRAM means all DRAM cells refresh 64K rows within 128 ms;
day day   Isotope life A time period: Isotope's Half Life i.e. Au-195's Half Life is 186.1 days; Also see: Isotope's Half Life in seconds;





One tenth of one bel; In data communication, S/N ratio measurement; Gain measurement in dB; Also see: CEATEC's real-time Sound Source Localization for new versions of robots, in 2004;

decibel micro ampere dB µA     NEC's Anti EMI noise measurement; Along with 10, 100, 1000 exponent of Mc/s, LSI chips' noise can be measured at micro ampere level; [Decades ago, in Myanmar, some technicians use stethoscope to detect whether chip produces noise or not];

aka dBm value

  dB . m;



Sharp's specification usage; Optical Fiber Transmitter's optical power output while fiber connecting; RSSI = Signal icon + text such as Excellent, Good, Fair, Poor; dBm;
  dBm / Mc/s     Radiation electromagnetic noise N control value; output 3.1~10.6Gc/s band with < - 41dBm/Mc/s, for UWB, for radio LAN; Also see: In 2004, Fujitsu's new UWB short-distance-wireless keyboard / mouse / pointing devices;
decibel per meter dB/m   Nominal attenuation Cable, cabling; Must be measured with constraints frequency f, impedance Z, power rating W, temperature T, and VSWR Impedance ; Also see: Attenuation in number; Coax, Fluororesin Dielectric, Mitsubishi; Network Design and PrinciplesWireless;
degree Celsius °C SI K Temperature; Also see: Artificial temperature; Barometric pressure at temperature; Brightness temperature; Temperature K;
degrees of freedom     degree One of the robotic specifications by Fujitsu; 2004;
Density: Chemical elements g/cm3   At constant temperature [ Without energy map ]: i.e. Gold [Au, chemical element] density is 19.32 g/cm3 at constant temperature 293 °K;

Also see: Density of Gas, or liquid;

Density: current density       Also see: SI current density;
Density: Connectivity Lines / rack   Numbers of lines per rack DSL line density; [NEC Global Press Release;]
Density: electric charge       Also see: SI electric charge density;
Density: electric flux       Also see: SI electric flux density;
Density: energy mWh/cm2   Milli Watt · Hour per Centi meter squared Also see: SI energy density; ORB's energy density is approx. 1 mWh/cm2, and ORB is made of 300 microns thin electrolyte-permeated gel state which is neither solid nor liquid, but in between, and <30 sec changing period;
Density: Fuel cell output W/cm2   Watt per centimeter square In 2004, NEC's fuel cell notebook computer's fuel cell output density is 70 mW/cm2; Also see:;

Density: Hard disk



Byte per square inch

Fujitsu Labs’ hard-disk density; In 2001, Fujitsu breaks through up to 300 GB/in2  ; 100 GB/in2 technology can produce 110GB(110 Giga-Byte) hard-disk for laptop PC; 

Density: Heat flux, irradiance       Also see: SI heat flux density, irradiance;
Density: Storage; Pbit/sq. in. Peta-bits per sq. in.   Million billion bits per square inch 4 Pbit/sq. in. = 4 million billion bits per square inch; Also see: Hitachi's ultra high-density storage system;

Density: Storage; TPI



Tracks per inch

Density of a disk/disc; Within one radius inch, more numbers of track provide higher density of storage

Density: tesla T   1 Wb / m2 Magnetic flux density; tesla T at heart; Also see: SI tesla;
Dialog Steps per hour steps/hr   Servers' benchmark results In 2007, Fujitsu's PRIMEPOWER1500 server performs 1.5M steps/hr, while benchmarking SAP SD 2-tier R/3 v.4 application concurrency;
Die per wafer     Quantitative, by qualitative of characteristics Geometry of BASE, EMITTER, COLLECTOR,   Geometry of anode side, and back side of cathode may vary depending on die per wafer, die' side, die' thickness, processing method, and etc.;

Also see: Central Semiconductor;

Dielectric insulator       Metal oxide insulating material measurement is out of a Myanmar knowledge; Dielectric insulating material measurement should not be resistance ohms alike;
dimension D   Human beings' perception 1D straight line; 2D plane; 3D space; 3D spatial; 4D space with time; ... Also see: Nama prediction;
dimension D   Non SI Length 1; 3; 16;

3/32; 3/16; 3/8;

1/8; 1/4; 1/2; 3/4;

discs per hour ,




  printing discs/hour World's fastest dye-sublimation disc printer, TEAC P55/AL55OS Disc Printer, 2011;

68 discs per hour; 500 CD, DVD, BD, ... can be color printed automatically within 8 hours;

also see: disc duplicator; USB duplicator; USB Flash Drive Printer;




Dots per inch

Resolution: measurement of a screen (a screen to be prompted, or a screen-document to be scanned), or a printer; Higher the dpi, crisper the image; Canon's scanning measurement: 75dpi = draft; 150dpi = standard; 300dpi = good; 600dpi is for enlargement; 

dpi DPI   dots per inch scanning In 2008, Canon CanoScan LiDE 200 scanner can perform up to 4800 dpi with Auto Mode;

LiDE200's scanning speed varies 2.3 milli second per line to 33.3 milli second per line; Notice that dpi*2 and tactical speeds ... ;




See word, and then double the machine’s native word

Double word

dynamic viscosity   SI Pa · s Pascal second;


  e/me   C/kg Charge to mass ratio;
electric charge density SI C/m3 Coulomb per cubic meter; [];
electric field strength SI V/m [];
electric flux density SI C/m2 Coulomb per square meter; [];
electric flux density   C ·  m-2 To simulate: commonly use 2 ~ 3 non energy mapped clocks must be synchronized first; Also see: Second; G; g; dimension;
electromotive force emf   Volt When electrostatic charge builds up, positive polarity and negative polarity co-exist, the polarities cause emf exists; 
electrons per second e/s     SI electric current; e/s
embedded structured ASIC blocks per device       In 2007, Lattice's FPGA device can perform 2Gbps/pin pair up to 12 embedded structured ASIC blocks per device;
energy density   SI J/m3 [];
energy density     J · m-3 Dot product to 1D distance must be further defined in time, because m can only be measured in solid as distance, as length; When gas and liquid are included m can only be rely on time period;

To simulate: commonly use 3 non energy mapped clocks must be synchronized first; Also see: Second; G; g;

Also see: dimension; 3D space; open_space; close_space;

Energy Efficiency Rating EER     Also see: HTS motor's;

Single Phase vs. 3 Phase motors, controlled by FPG;

Energy Efficiency Rating EER   BTU/ LG's usage; Lower the watt hour, higher the BTU;
exposure   SI C/kg Coulomb per kilogram; Rays: x [x ray], and γ [gamma-ray];  [];
farad F SI C / V Capacitance;
farad F SI m-2 · kg-1 · s4 · A2 Capacitance;

To simulate: commonly use 4 non energy mapped clocks must be synchronized first; Also see: Second; G; g;

  fF / µm2   Parasitic capacitance Among layers in CMOS;






A quadrillionth; Multiplier;

Firewall per VPN Firewall/VPN   Computer system security Hardware's ability of protection; Firewall's speed varies, VPN's speed AND encryption varies;  Also see: FortiGate; 
FLOPS per CPU FLOPS / CPU     Super computer CPU's peak vector performance; NEC's usage;




Frame per second

Frame rate; Mostly at run time, digital camera’s imaging; Animation by graphics files; Human being's perceptible limit is approximately 20 fps;

frequency f   c/s Also see: cycle per second, c/s, c/s; Also see: SI c/s c/s;
Gate oxide capacitance per unit area Cox   Directly proportional to drain current Cox = εox / tox = Gate oxide capacitance per unit area where Cox is inversely proportional to tox [gate oxide layer's thickness];
  g   Gravity Unlike G, gravity g is considered by only 2 dimensions: distance & time; In G unit, not only distance & time, but also atmospheric pressure, heterodyne index for each particle, space radiation for each particle, ... ; g is also known as gravitational acceleration = 9.8067 m/s2 at sea level;
  G   Anti gravity measurement G value is directly proportional to planet's size; Also see: SpaceMedicine; Gravitational physical constant G = 6.6732 x 10-11 N · m2/kg2 at Earth;

For space scientists only: Develop G vs. NnumberHnumber characteristics;

  G   Artificial gravity Not available to public; Space level scientists only; Artificial gravity is out of a Myanmar knowledge ;






109   Measuring frequency; Multiplier;






230    Measuring bit or byte; Multiplier;

Giga bit per second per channel Gbps/ch   Transmission speed In 2006, 25 Gbps/ch operational speed among LSI optical connection which is the fastest in the world, achieved by VCSEL tech by NEC;
Giga c/s Volt Gc/s V   Brightness temperature JAXA's usage: Light's brightness vs. temperature;





Higher the GL, easier to edit/read/modify by human; Programming language generation; i.e. 3GL is 3rd Generation Language, 4GL is 4th Generation Language; Also see: G, generation in wireless;




1g = 0.0352oz

Device’s net weight

Gray Gy SI J/kg Absorbed dose; Imparted specific energy; Kerma;
Gray Gy SI m2 · s-2 Absorbed dose; Imparted specific energy; Kerma; Also see: sievert;
growth image data per plant     growth image data / minute Agriculture, Forestry, Fisheries; Monitoring & simulation; Also see: Hitachi's Rice Genome Simulator;  
heat capacity, entropy   SI J/K []; Also see: SI specific heat capacity, specific entropy;
heat capacity, entropy     J · K-1 Dot product to K-1 can be further researched by temperature K vs. artificial temperature;
heat flux density, irradiance   SI W/m2 [];
heat flux density, irradiance     W · m-2 Also see: dimension; 2D;






One hundred; Multiplier;

hecto-pascal/ millibars hPa/mb   Barometric pressure at temperature Casio's usage; 1 hPa = 1 mb; hPa, hecto Pascal; mb, millibars; One of the sensor modes; Similar to inHg; inHg, inchesHg; Note: / sign is not per especially in this unit;

Pressure machine engine's control logic is still not 100% logical yet;

hecto-pascal/ millibars per feet hPa/mb per ft   Air pressure AND altitude AND temperature Casio's usage; Temperature is measured: number°F per 1000 ft;
hecto-pascal/ millibars per meter hPa/mb per m   Air pressure AND altitude AND temperature Casio's usage; Temperature is measured: number°C per 1000 m;





Inductance; A current changing at a rate of one ampere per second will generate one volt across an inductance of one henry [Microsoft Press, 1997];

In 2007, depending on inductor type, inductance may vary 0.1µH ~ 10µH, 1µH ~ 1000µH, 100µH ~ 10000µH;

henry H SI Wb/A Inductance;

In 2007, depending on inductor type, 2A ~ 75A;

henry H SI m2 · kg · s-2 · A-2 Inductance;

To simulate: commonly use 2 non energy mapped clocks must be synchronized first; Also see: Second; G; g;





Frequency; one cycle per second;

_ IFF Hz, also see: c/s;

c/s c/s SI s-1 Based quantity is frequency;

_ IFF Hertz, also see: c/s;

Second s is not energy mapped; Also see: becquerel Bq; [ cuu/Units/units.html ];


h or H


4 bits

Hexadecimal: base 16

hit per day hits / day   Serving speed to Internet Internet webpage service request; In 2003, 18G hits per day can be served by using 0.007 computing capability of Deepcomp6800 supercomputer by Lenovo;
I/Os per second     I/O pins' seek-time period In 2005, Hitachi produces 15K rpm FDB motor Ultrastar hard disk:  2 ms avg. latency; 3.3 ms seek-time; 33% more I/Os per second than 10K rpm hard disk; SAS interface;
impedance Z   Ohm In AC, total opposition to current flow; While measuring fluororesin dielectric coax from Mitsubishi, Z = 50 Ohms, in 2004; [But, Z and SRL can be reduced by high tech pico material technology by high tech purification of element; S/N is reversely proportional to Z and SRL]; Also see: Random call parameter;
Instruction per clock cycle Instruction / clock cycle   Instructions per clock cycle Multiple instructions can be fetched and executed within one clock cycle; For advance computer engineers only, develop units; ; Also see: Processor;
1/2/4 images per page     Imaging ability SONY;; Color video printer; 1~4 color images / page; MV & USB2; 2006;
image per minute ipm   Scanning rate Fujitsu's ScanSnap scanner's usage; 30 ipm in 2005;
images per battery charge images / battery charge   Imaging ability Nikon's digital imaging usage; In 2006, 2700 images/battery charge, and 80 ms shutter response time, 10 MP, i.e. Nikon SLR D80;





Instruction per second; depending on hardware system architecture, ips may be 32, 64, 128, & … bit in one instruction;

IPvNumber     Internet Protocol version NUMBER i.e. IPv4, IPv6, and so on ...; IPv6 is 128 bit, capable of unlimited IP addresses addressing, and developed in 1991; [However, bottleneck is hash-engine's polynomial bits];
joule J SI newton meter

N · m

Newton dot product meter

1 J = 1 kg  m2/s2; In computing, input AC current is protected/guarded by electrical surge protectors; Surge protectors are measured in joules; [In 2004, 3000+ joules of protection are available by portable outlet protector];
joule J SI m2 ·  kg ·  s-2 Energy; Quantity of heat; Work;

To simulate: commonly use 2 non energy mapped clocks must be synchronized first; Also see: Second; G; g;

katal kat SI s-1 · mol Catalytic activity;; Also see: Catalytic activity concentration;






103   Measuring frequency; Multiplier;






210    Measuring bit or byte; Multiplier;

kilogram kg SI mass of 0.001 m3 of pure liquid water SI mass; Mass of 1 liter of pure liquid water; Mass is not weight, thus disregard gravity g; International Bureau of Weights and Measures defines kg as a sample of platinum-iridium alloy; [ Without energy map ];
  km/charge   operate kilometers distance commute per 1 full battery recharge 2010 Mitsubishi electric car;

also see: 2010 Toyota Prius hybrid operates 30 km;

  kS/s   Kilo Samples per second Measuring sampling signal; DVD kS/s > CD kS/s; DAQ;
  MS/s   Sampling per channel In 2006, by GaGe; 125 MS/s sampling per channel; 8 channel per PCI; Bandwidth signal averaging/detection/filtering;
Line     Numbers of lines Line can be classified into binary line, text line, ... ; In programming: line's size can be defined [i.e. if {MAX_CANON} is pre-processor directive #, line size is defined; Otherwise, line is ... ]; Also see: Line in AES/OS canonical mode for processing input;  

In cable networking: Cable is also called line;  

Line     Numbers of lines In hardware: End result of gate, the last carried result of transistors depend on physical lines; In which mean "line" is a transistor-series; Interrupts can be triggered to a line either by field-effect, or by physical Vth connection; In memories, also see: BL, WL;

In nuclear physics: quantum engagement of particle can prompt plasma line in temperature;

Line items per hour Line items / hr   Microsoft SQL server's processing benchmark

In db software: "line item" refers to "record data"; Based on relational algebra, in database, 1 db contains N tables, 1 table contains [N columns AND N rows]; In common, each row contains each "record data"; Regardless of whether in a text file, or in a binary file, those record data are separated by [separator = i.e. cartridge return character];

Lines per chassis Lines / chassis   Numbers of lines per chassis In 2000, Edge Service Routers from Cisco support up to ((1176 T1 Lines/chassis) || (43 T3 Lines/chassis));
Lines per page Lines / page   Print option Reflection; IBM; File>>Page Setup>>Page Options; Also see: Characters per page;
Liter per kilometer L / Km   Environmental fuel consumption In 2007, 100 kilometer per hour speed, 1 L / 100 Km gasoline cars are environmentally available to public, and 1 L is 146 Yen, approx. 1.23 USD;





Brightness: ANSI Lumen is used to measure projector’s quality;

lumen lm SI cd · sr Luminous flux;
lumen lm SI m2 · m-2 · cd = cd Luminous flux, http://physics/nist/gov;
luminance   SI cd/m2 [];
luminance     cd · m-2 Also see: cd; dimension;
lux lx SI lm/m2 Illuminance;
lux lx SI m2 · m-4 · cd

= m-2 · cd

CITIZEN Eco-Drive's usage; 2009 Model BM*
lux ri distance 1d Remark
500 (lux) Common office inside 4 hr 60 hours 1d, one day use with 1 second tic; solar cell's require charging time period;

, from 2 second tic tic to 1 second tic, charge time period; 2 second tic tic means "stop state", not enough energy to do 1 second tic;

ri distance in light source, where light source environment may vary e.g. exterior, interior, 30W, ... ;

lux, solar unit; time may vary 2 min ~ 4 hours to do 1 day use of 1 second tic;

CITIZEN Eco-Drive solar power watch is a high tech device which explains time, space, action;

1000 (lux) 65cm ri 30W 2 hr 25 hours
3000 (lux) 20cm ri 30W 40 min 8 hours
10000 (lux) Cloudy; Exterior 12 min 3 hours
100000 (lux) Sunny; Exterior 2 min 18 minutes
Lux per minute Lux / min   Brightness lux in exposure time period Casio's usage; Solar power charging time period along with environmental brightness to rechargeable battery;
magnetic field strength SI A/m


magnetic field strength   A · m-1 Also see: ampere; dimension;
mass density SI kg/m3
mass density   kg · m-3 Also see: dimension;
mass fraction SI kg/kg = 1 [];
mass fraction   kg · kg-1 Also see: kg;

To simulate: commonly use 2 non energy mapped clocks must be synchronized first; Also see: Second;

Maximum memory per process Maximum memory / process   Maximum Memory in KB per Process Measured in KB (Kilo Byte); post-RDBMS from Cache InterSystems' parameter adjustment for process
 Biometrics & Medical   Also see: Biometric Measurement;
#mm #mm   TST induration in diameter distance [Tuberculosis; JAMA; Vol. 293; No.22]; Constraint = between 0 mm ~ 25 mm where # can vary; # mm AND IU/mL;
Beats per Minute Beats/Min; bpm;   Cardiologic beats within a time interval ECG normal rhythms (Inherent Atrial = 60 ~ 100 bpm) (Inherent Junction = 40 ~ 60 bpm) (Inherent Ventricular = 20 ~ 40 bpm) (NSR = 60 ~ 100 bpm) (SB = 60 bpm) (ST > 100 bmp) (...);
mm/hour mm/hr   ESR SI (M normal 1 ~ 13 mm/hr) (F normal 1~ 20 mm/hr);

Conventional (M normal 1 ~ 13 mm/hr) (F normal 1 ~ 20 mm/hr);

gram per deci Liter g/dL   Hemoglobin % in weight vs. liquid 1 liter = 1.0567 liquid quarts = 1 Kg distilled water volume at 4°C; mg/dL = milli gram per dL; µg/dL = micro gram per dL;
  g/L   Fibrinogen Coagulation:

SI (1.7 ~ 4.1 g/L);

Conventional (150 ~ 400 mg/dL);

  g/L   Laboratory test result [SI] Albumin test; Protein Total test;
  G/L   Platelets SI (150 ~ 350 G/L);

Conventional (150000 ~ 350000 per mm3);

  G/L   WBC SI (4.3 ~ 10.8 G/L);

Conventional (4.3 ~ 10.800 per mm3);

  mg/L   ppm 1 milligram per liter [1 mg/L] = 1 ppm;
  µg/mL   Dimer; FDP Coagulation; Dimer is less than 0.5 µg/mL; FDP is less than 5 µg/mL;
holes per nano-biochip     numbers of holes / nano-biochip In biometric computing, from tissue sample to DNA to RNA, optical scanner scan each hole; Therefore, more numbers of holes provide larger quantity of gene expression to be able to analyze; In 2005, [NEC + AIST] develops high speed protein analysis system [Minute Sample Amount by High Speed Protein Analysis];
IU/mL IU/mL   Continous IFN-y assay Whole blood interferon y; # mm AND IU/mL; IFN-y IU/mL constraint is 0 ~ 10 where interferon y is measured in tuberculin skin test;
  J/kg   Also see: cardio*; i.e. Defibrillation at 2 J/kg;
kg/m2 BMI   Weight vs. height measurement 25 kg/m2 is recommended, 30 kg/m2 and higher is obese; BMI is a medical unit;

For space developers only: develop BMI for space medicine along with 1G ~ 10G ~ 0.1G ~ 1G [Also see: G, Space BMI];

  L/min     Also see: cardio*; i.e. 4 L/min oxygen flow by nasal cannula;
  mEq/L     Carbon dioxide; Chloride; Potassium; Sodium;
  mg/day     Dosage;
  mg/dL     Creatinine; Urea nitrogen; Also see: cardio* i.e. 100 mg/dL glucose concentration at bedside;
  mg/m2 basis      
million per mm3 M/mm3   RBC SI (M normal 4.6 ~ 6.2 T/L) (F normal 4.2 ~ 5.9 T/L);

Conventional (M normal 4.6 ~ 6.2 M/mm3) (F normal 4.2 ~ 5.9 M/mm3);

  µL/L   ppm 1 micro-liter per liter [1 µL/L] = 1 ppm;
  micromol/L   Laboratory test result Bilirubin; Creatinine;
  mL/h   Dose rate mL/hour;
  mL/kg   Blood volume SI unit; 80~85 mL/kg;

Conventional is 8.5~9% of kg body weight;

Also see: cardio*; i.e. fluid bolus of isotonic crystalloid, normal saline, ... ;

  mmol/L   Hgb SI unit (M normal 8.1 ~ 11.2 mmol/L) (F normal 7.4 ~ 9.9 mmol/L);

Conventional (M normal 13 ~ 18 g per100 mL) (F normal 12 ~ 16 g per 100 mL);

  mmol/L   Laboratory test result [SI] BUN; Calcium; Chloride; Cholesterol Total; CO2; Glucose; LDH; Magnesium; Phosphorus; Patassium; Sodium;
  mg/kg   Dosage Also see: cardio*; i.e. amiodarone 5 mg/kg, epinephrine 0.01 mg/kg, lidocaine 1 mg/kg, ...; Pediatric dosage;
  mEq/kg per dose   Dosage IFF pediatric, sodium bicarbonate infuses slowly AND adequate ventilation
  mg/kg per day   Dose rate µg/kg/min;
  mg/kg per hour   Dose rate For example: IFF pediatric, glucose 0.5 ~ 1 g/kg IV/IO, alternative 5% 10 ~ 20 mL/Kg, alternative 10% 5 ~ 10 mL/kg, alternative 25% 2 ~ 4 mL/kg if vein is large;
  mL     i.e. 4 mL cartridge; 6 mL vial; 5 mL disposable delivery device;
mm Hg BP;   Blood pressure measurement Medical measurement;
second s   PT; PTT; aPTT; PT (SI (10 ~ 14 s)) (Conventional (10 ~ 14 s));

PTT (SI (21 ~ 37 s)) (Conventional (21 ~ 37 s));

aPTT (SI (21 ~ 37 s)) (Conventional (21 ~ 37 s));

  kDa     Sharp plasmacluster ion technical unit; Molecular weight of protein; Can suppress allergens, bacteria, viruses, ... ; IFF PMD pattern(s), also see: P vector;
  kU/L     Laboratory test result;
  U/mL   Laboratory test result aCL, Anticardiolipin and Ig, Immunoglobulin G level; Normal is 0~14 U/mL;
  U/mL     Medical measurement; CT; CA-125 level;
  umol/L   Laboratory test result Bilirubin Total;
  Unit/L   Laboratory test result Alkaline Phosphatase; ALT; AST; GammaGT;






220    Measuring bit or byte: MB; Multiplier;






106   Measuring frequency; Multiplier;

Mega Byte per USD MB/$   Mega-byte per United States' one dollar In 2003, for each 1 MB of storage, estimated cost of computing storage in USA might be between 2 cents and 4 cents; In storage aspect, faster the storage's data transfer rate, higher the cost is
Mega-Pixel MP     A pixel = A light emitting dot of display(screen); Generally, MP is used in digital camera to measure size of photo-quality image, therefore the bigger the MP, the larger the size of photo quality image is;; In 2004, commonly available MPs are 3.2, 4, 5, 6, 6.3, 7.2, 12.3, ... ; Also see: CCD; Resolution;
Mega Transfer per Second MTS   System bus' speed Also see: 66/133//266/533; NEC's duobinary;




1 m = 1.0936 yd

Cable length; Distance of light travels in vacuum for 3.33564095 * 10^-9 second; SI displacement; Length; [ Without energy map ];






One millionth; Multiplier;

microampere per Mbit µA/Mb     Systems' standby-time depends on lower consumption of current in µA; lower the µA, longer the standby-time is; In 2004, Hitachi invented 25µA/Mb is the lowest consumption/Mb in the world;
microvolt per degree Celsius µV/°C     In electronic engineering, drift is measured; Drift = Thermal EMF; Measure low noise, low power, low resistance, ... ;

For example: while amplifying, 1µV/°C thermal EMF but at high speed drift might increase to 3µV/°C;







1.0E-6 meter

Length: One millionth of a meter; EUVL measurement on silicon; Note: smaller the micron, thinner the chip; 0.10 micron is 10,000 times thinner than human hair; On the other hand, smaller the micron, larger the quantity of build-in transistors in a chip, larger the quantity of build-in transistors in the chip, faster the chip's processing speed is; In 2005, Denso wins 1 µm WorldSkills Competition in polymechanics/automation;






One thousandth (mostly used for measuring time of data transferring speed); Multiplier;

Millimeter square mm2   mm * mm Measurement in die; 0.3 micron is old technology; 0.25W power dissipation limits all SiO2
Million PC per second MPC/s   1000000 connected computer per second Spreading speed of virus, worm, and etc.; Note: Slammer's 55MPC/s is faster than Code Red;
minute min     A time period:
molar energy   SI J/mol joule per mole; [];
molar entropy, molar heat capacity   SI J/(mol · K) joule per mole kelvin; [];
mole mol SI IF phosphorus, weight ≈ 50 fg; [ Without energy map ]; SI amount of matter; Amount of substance; Numbers of atoms, numbers of molecules; Avogadro number ; Also see: mol/m3;
moment of force   SI N · m Newton meter; [];






One billionth; Multiplier; Mostly used for measuring time of computing speed;

nanometer nm   nm A measurement of NEC's high-tech material technology; In Fujitsu's GaN HEMT material development, Gain measurement in dB is directly proportional to material's thickness in nm; One billionth of a meter;





IBM, 2001: World’s first logic-performing computer circuit within a single molecule; [Carbon nano-tubes technology is to replace silicon chips]; n-FET’s gap/distance/length between –V and Vout in the circuit is 250nm; p-FET’s length may be the same like n-FET;

newton N   kg  m/s2 Mechanical force;
newton N SI m · kg · s-2 SI force;

To simulate: commonly use 2 non energy mapped clocks must be synchronized first; Also see: Second;




4 bits

Also called nybble; A half of one byte

nits nits   Brightness Samsung's usage in display;

nit, unit of surface brightness equal to one candela per square meter;

node     An equipment One computing-entity which should be considered as a leaf to a stem (One-whole-computer); i.e. In 2002, world's fastest NEC's 40 TFLOPS Earth Simulator super-computer is built of 640 nodes by deploying 5120 processors; In 2004, NEC SX8 super computer is the fastest computer by 65TFLOPS; Also see: Single node, multi node super computers

Normal Form



A table

In relational database, by applying normalization theory, a table’s redundant data are measured as 1NF ~ 5NF





Octo (Latin Language): base 8




8 bits

Data unit

Ohm Ω SI V/A Electric resistance; 1 A by 1 V at conductor; Also see: Impedance Z; Ω , Greek letter omega;
Ohm Ω SI m2 · kg · s-3 · A-2 Electric resistance;

To simulate: commonly use 3 non energy mapped clocks must be synchronized first; Also see: Second; G; g; OFC;

Ohm centi meter Ω . cm     While conducting, nano metal inked fine line's volume resistance is less than 3 x 10 -6 Ω . cm; Also see: Sumitomo;
Once per oscillation period     Number The most accurate    LSI   AND   LSI    on-chip LSI jitter in the world; To understand this unit, 1st understand CK; 2nd understand is ratio of dark : light, thus holes refer tangent to gravitational wave; 3rd understand clock timing fluctuations along with energy consumption and energy conversion and magnetic flux and telsa T and polar r distance; 4th understand real time   pS ... ;
Operations per second GOPS   Giga operations / s In 2005, new Fujitsu single-chip multi-core processor's one of the processing(s) can process 51+ GOPS [image processing];

In 2006, Denso + NEC + Toyota image processes 100 GOPS, <2W, 0.13micron;

Operations per second: $/BBops/Min $/BBops/Min   Benchmark business operations per minute In July, 2003, estimated cost by performance of application server in USA is: 5 ~ 36 $/BBops/Min;
Operations per second: DML operations per second per table       Oracle's usage; Oracle Magazine, Nov./Dec., 2004; [Notice that "per table" means operations in 2D];

Operations per second: FLOPS



Floating point operations per second


Benchmarking speed of computer; [Floating point arithmetic is different from theoretical arithmetic because instruction level floating points in binary depends on where the most significant bit [the last bit]  to be truncated];

  PSI     Pressure; Space suit's pre-breathe helmet may vary 15 psi ~ 4 psi [to and fro outer space and shuttle]; Also see: Barometric pressure at temperature;
Packet per second pps     Packet's byte may vary; 1 packet may contains 40B, 53B, 64B, ... ;
Paper weight g/m2   Quality of paper In common, 75 ~ 100 g/m2 paper weights are available as A4 size 210mmX297mm aka 8.3inX11.7in, Letter size 216mmX279mm aka 8.5inX11in, Legal size 216mmX356mm aka 8.5inX14in, ... ;
Parts per million ppm   A rate 1 micro-liter per liter 1 µL/L; 1 milli-gram per liter 1 mg/L; Clock error rate;
pascal Pa SI N/m2 Pressure; Stress;
pascal Pa SI m-1 ·  kg ·  s-2 Pressure; Stress;

To simulate: commonly use 2 non energy mapped clocks must be synchronized first; Also see: Second; G;

passenger per hour     transport handling capability For example: 100 km/hour ART train in 2008 Beijing Olympic, 4500 passenger/hour;
Peak vector performance per chip       Super computer computing; Also see: floating points for each vector; SX World, NEC;

Vectors in super computing "might be" depending on %SHARE% of time constraint, %PATH% of communication medium constraint, and etc.

permeability SI H/m henry per meter; [];
permittivity SI F/m farad per meter; [];
Peta byte PB   PB Still in evolutional usage; Oracle; Storage






One trillionth; Multiplier;

picoliter pl     One trillionth of one liter; In 2004, printer's droplet measurement of ink consumption; Canon measures pl by speed also; [In Myanmar, in 2000s, some retailers measure and estimate one colorful page to print by two drops of ink];




A number of pins (Male)

Pins of chips, connectors, others




mm for CRT; µm for OLED;

Length: Millimeter distance between phosphors of a screen;  Note: smaller the pitch, higher the screen resolution of monitor; In 2004, SONY breaks through 56µm x 168µm dot-pitch in OLED;





Pixel is not airborne display usage; Screen’s light-emitting-dot [Because, when a phosphor perceives electron, the phosphor produces photon], where the dot(pixel) may contain primary colors - Red, Green, and Blue; In Windows, font's RGB in hexidecimal value as i.e. Gray-Black font Hex = {11,11,11} where 11 for each R, G, and B; Also see: CPI;

ppb ppb   Part per billion PXI clock's clock-error;
ppm ppm   Part per million PXI clock's clock-error; At 10Mc/s clock, accuracy must be <25 ppm;




Page per minute

Printer speed; In 2004, Force85 model can produces 85PPM;




Packets per second

Router’s packet switched rate; pps is directly propositional to hardware system’s bus sampling rate (c/s); In 2000, 2GB/s bandwidth of packet-data at SDRAM; Also consider other bandwidths: switch-fabric's bandwidth, total-line-bandwidth, and ...; 

ps/nm     Dispersion measurement Wavelength in nm; For each particle, EM causes attenuation after 4.5km traveling, therefore dispersion compensation is needed; Optical networking; Hitachi's high speed optical transmission unit;

Also see: Z Fiber as dispersion compensator;

Quality of Services QoS   A measurement of network variables In IP Telephony, measuring delivery-rate, error-rate, lost-packet, and rate of repair; In wholesales retails trading, PoS/Qos is one of the important factors;
Quantum charge ratio h/e   J · s/C Quantum charge ratio;
Query per second Query / s   Average queries per second In Microsoft Windows Server 2003 platform, Average registration per second = 300, and average queries per second = 350 for WINS service only; For detailed planning info, read MMC2 v.5 WINS's *.hlp;
radian rad SI m1 · m-1 = 1;

Meter [based 10] dot product    meter to the power    minus one    is equal to one;

Plane angle; Also see: Polar plane, polar graph; About 57.296°;

In AC, rad/s is used instead of cycle/s [c/s]; ω, omega, angular frequency in rad/s;

radiance   SI W/(m2 · sr) Watt per square meter steradian; [];
radiant intensity   SI W/sr Watt per steradian; [];
Records per second Records / s   Records per second IBM usage to measure Internet transactional records per second, performed by e-servers; Also see: Transaction / second;
Requests per second Requests / s   Requests per second Stress testing Internet web-site while handshaking HTTP 1.1; i.e. Spirent Avalanche 220,  can generates 60000 sessions and 10000 requests/second while handshaking HTTP 1.1; Small ISP office deployable;
Resolution # x #   Numbers of (horizontal) pixel


Numbers of (vertical) pixel

Display, or capture: ;

Display; resolution;

In 2004, the highest resolution commonly available product is 4048 x 3040 by Fuji film CCD HR; Also see: Commonly available products' resolutions; MP;





Revolution per minute

Hard disk’s rotational speed; Generally, higher the rpm, faster the data-transfer rate; In 2000, Seagate manufactured 15000 RPM world's first disc-drive;

Sales data lines items per hour Sales data lines items / hr   Sales data lines items per hour SAP R/3 benchmark by Microsoft for high data-traffic (for measuring critical and time-sensitive data processing)
second s SI [ Without energy map ]; A time period: Connection timeout; Time; Sometimes "sec" is used;

For Monbusho level space scientists only: SI time must be simulated and measured with energy map along with heterodyned indexes i.e. SpaceBMI; Basic quantity "time" may vary;

Also see: Humanoid ; time;

second s   Isotope life A time period: Isotope's Half Life i.e. Au-195m's Half Life is 30.5 s; Also see: Isotope's Half Life in days;




9.192631770 * 109 cycles of cesium atom oscillating

A time period; SI time; 1/60 of min;

2.99792458 * 108 m traveling of light in space;

Notice the 8 digit decimal points in mantissa;




512 byte

The smallest amount of physical storage on disk; According to format parameter, each track on a disk is divided into several sectors; sectors contain fixed sizes (512 byte for each sector)

Sectors per track     /N:sectors = Number Microsoft Windows OS;
siemens S SI A/V Electric conductance;
siemens S SI m-2 · kg-1 · s3 · A2 Electric conductance;

To simulate: commonly use 3 non energy mapped clocks must be synchronized first; Also see: Second; G; g;

sievert Sv SI J/kg Dose equivalent;
sievert Sv SI m2 · s-2 Dose equivalent,;
Single photon per pulse       Quantum dots are designed by single photon per pulse; In a medium, quantum encryption is possible only by 1 photon / pulse, Fujitsu;
Six-pass transistors per Switch Matrix Six Pass Transistors / Switch Matrix   Routing interconnection Among CLBs, routing interconnections can be interconnected horizontally/vertically; Therefore, switch matrix in 2D can provide detailed passes in transistors; Computer hardware engineering usage; Also see: Materials;




Connection between motherboard and device

Motherboard’s physical-device connectivity; more slots mean higher numbers of connectivity ;

In user aspect: port is not 100% physical (combination of physical and logical), on the other hand slot is 100% physical connectivity; but from computer engineering perspective, both port and slot are physical and logical;

specific energy   SI J/kg;
specific energy     J  · kg-1 Also see: G; g;
specific heat capacity, specific entropy   SI J/(kg · K);

Also see: SI heat capacity;

specific heat capacity, specific entropy     J  · (kg · K)-1 Also see: artificial temperature; G; g; second; temperature;
specific volume   SI m3/kg;
speed   SI m/s Same as velocity; Vector makes differences;
state per symbol Note available yet;   Optical fiber's particle type and each characteristics In optical engineering, [amplitude AND phase] of a signal symbol can be modulated/demodulated at a level state ; Thus, N numbers of state and N numbers of symbol can be multiplexed; Also see: Hitachi's 16 levels for each particle;
steradian sr SI m2 · m-2 = 1;

Meter square    dot product    meter to the power    minus two    is equal to one;

Solid angular; Solid angle; Also see: rad;
surface tension   SI N/m Newton per meter; [];
surface tension     N · m-1 Also see: dimension;
SYN per second SYN / s   Number of SYNchronization per second Numbers of DoS protection in SYN/s is a measurement of network security; i.e. Foundry Network's E series can do DoS protection up to 4M SYN/s in 2005;
Temperature: Kelvin K SI -273K ≈ 1 Celsius SI temperature; At sea-level, pure water in +273.15K to freeze [melt], +373.15K to boil [condense]; Thermodynamic temperature [ Without energy map ];

Also see: Specific heat; Close_space temperature : Open_space temperature ;

Temperature: mK mK   Artificial temperature 2005 JAXA's Suzaku; 60 milli Kelvin in space; Also see: Cryogenic temperature;
Temperature: T T   Either in C or F C = Celsius; F = Fahrenheit; Temperature; T causes P varies; Celsius scale = Centigrade scale; K = Kelvin; R = Rankine; F = 1.8C + 32; C = 5/9 (F - 32); Also see: Specific heat;






1012  Measuring frequency; Multiplier;






240    Measuring bit or byte; Multiplier;

tesla T SI Wb/m2 Magnetic flux density; Same as Density: tesla;
tesla T SI kg · s-2 · A-1 Magnetic flux density;

To simulate: commonly use 2 non energy mapped clocks must be synchronized first; Also see: Second; G; g;

Test time per test-pattern Testing time / test-pattern   Time period In hardware testing, longer the registers, longer the shift time; Longer shift time causes longer testing time period for each pattern; Also see: test mode OR normal mode;
Thermal conductivity   SI W/(m · K) [];
Thermal conductivity     W  ·  (m · K)-1 1D distance, 2D plane, 3D space must be classified first, and then kelvin K must be defined whether in open_space or close_space; With or without energy map; With or without heterodyned indexes ... ;
Thumbnail per page Thumbnail / page   Thumbnail per page Microsoft's usage; Also see: C/T;
Time per second     1 time per second Siborg's Smart Tweezer, digital multi-meter measuring rate; Can measure as less/low/small as 0~9M resistance; 0~800mV DC; 1µH~999mH inductance; 10pF~900µF capacitance;
Times per second Times / s   Capturing speed of camera In 2005, LAC camera can shoot 50K Times/second to capture lightning strikes in images ... ; Also see: Optical computing;
Torque per ampere Torque / amp   Magnet torque; Reluctance torque; Control algorithm may vary depending on motor type; Also see: IPM motor's torque;
Tracks per disk side     /T:tracks = Number Microsoft Windows OS; %PATH%\format /? <enter>

Transaction per second

Transaction / second   Transactions per second In RDBMS, previously executed SQL commands can be either committed [by commit command to confirm], or rollback [by rollback command to cancel]; Transactions [Transaction = relational data + SQL command] occur among computers [In common, sessions' bandwidth becomes bottleneck], so that the serving-speed of the computers can be measured in a computing-unit called transaction per second;
Transistor per chip Transistor / chip   Transistors per chip Also see: Die size; Micron size; In 2000, micron size varies 0.3 to 0.1;
twip twip   1D length Microsoft VB application usage; Approximately, 1 twip = 1/20 of printer's dot; 1440 twip = 1 inch; Approximation of display's screen capture vs. printer's buffer;
Velocity   SI m/s Same as speed; Vector makes differences;




either AC or DC; 1 J / C = 1 V;

AC:100 ~ 240V, mostly from wall outlet to adapter or power supply;

DC: 2 ~ 20V, mostly from adapter or power supply to motherboard;

volt V SI W/A Electric potential difference; Electromotive force;
volt V SI m2 · kg · s-3 · A-1 Electric potential difference; Electromotive force, also see: emf;

To simulate: commonly use 3 non energy mapped clocks must be synchronized first; Also see: Second; G; g;

  EV   Exposure Exposure compensation is 2 EV [SD +/- ] in SONY DSC M1 Camera in 2005;
  keV   Space radiation X-rays to gamma rays at 0.4 ~ 600 keV [Jaxa's X-ray astronomy ];
volume   SI m3 Cubic meter;

V x R x


Version x Release x

IBM's software product usage;



V x R x M x


Version x Release x Modification x

IBM's software development usage;


  V x.x.xxxx   Version number . sub version number . build number Microsoft's .Net Framework usage; i.e. v 1.1.4322; In programming, the difference between build and compile is that compile means current source codes must be checked, parsed, bugged/debugged, and make sure to assemble those codes in text into binary [machine understandable]; On the other hand, build means compile all source codes, and then all [*.*] necessary files are also linked, called, attached, and be ready to use but might not be in an installation stage;
Wafer per month     IC water productivity In manufacturing, supply in productivity of IC wafer by time period meets JIT logistics' demand;
watt W SI joule per second


Electric power rating; power; radiant flux; 1 W = 1 kg  m2/s3;
watt W SI m2 ·  kg ·  s-3 Power; Radiant flux;

To simulate: commonly use 3 non energy mapped clocks must be synchronized first; Also see: Second; G; g;

  kW:volume:weight   Unit not available to public;

High tech naval submarine usable;

HTS motor, lower energy consumption, higher efficiency output, smaller than old type motors, lighter weight than old model motors, HTS-motor's surface in room temperature [Also see: T ], relay controller allows adjustable increase/decrease power output, very low noise, very low magnetic flux leakage; A ratio is kW:vol:kg;
  W/Ch   Watt per channel Audio amplifier;
wave number   SI m-1 Reciprocal meter; Vector dependent; Dimension dependent; Direction dependent; Also see: 1D; Omni; Spread; ... ;
weber Wb   1 A * H Magnetic flux; SQUID sensor can read each quantum flux;
weber Wb SI V · s Magnetic flux;
weber Wb SI m2 · kg · s-2 · A-1 Magnetic flux;

To simulate: commonly use 2 non energy mapped clocks must be synchronized first; Also see: Second; G; g;




16 bits, 32 bits, 64 bits, [128 bits in near future]

Microprocessor’s the largest quantity in bits of data at one clock cycle;

Microsoft number system usage: qword = 64bit; dword = 32bit; word = 16bit; Also see: WL; RAP music usage's leveled words;




1 yd = 0.9144 m

Cable length

year year   Isotope life A time period:

Isotope's Half Life i.e. H-3's Half Life is 12+ years; Also see: Isotope's Half Life in days;






A sextillionth; Multiplier;

... ...   ... ...