A Study of First MulaMinGoneZetawonSayadaw’s Insight Meditation Technique in Burma
Alodawpyie Meditation Monastery
Newark, CA 94560, U.S.A.
This research paper, submitted to United Nation Day of Vassak, the International Association of Buddhist University, MC University, Bangkok, Thailand.
January 13, 2016
This study was conducted to quick understand the instruction of MulaMinGoneZetawonSayadaw, a Burmese elder monk about his technique of insight meditation in way of mindfulness practice. MulaMinGoneZetawonSayadaw was an elder bhikkhu who earned his reputation as arahanta, highly honored by entire of well learned elder monks, buddhist scholars in Burma around about 1887s. On account of his instruction of mindfulness practice in Burmese language, the mindfulness meditation exploited all over the world was easily understood, rightly persuaded and manufactured to the world for the sake of people. The conduction of this study is primarily relied on MulaMinGoneZetawonSayadaw’s books, pāḷi texts and some reliable resources and this is a type of documentary research. MulaMinGoneZetawonSayadaw’s writing is very classical and hard to follow but every word in his work is precious and meaningful; it did not find any redundancy in his work of writing as we frequently did it. I carefully explained all about insight meditation in short not to miss his idea in this study. This study found a necessary point dealing with insight practice of mindfulness that the four mindfulness contemplations inclusive insight meditation is able to be practiced in ten present continuous moments – four postures like walking, standing, sitting and lying down and six consciousness moments like eye consciousness arising moment, ear consciousness arising moment, nose consciousness arising moment, tongue consciousness arising moment, body consciousness arising moment and thinking consciousness arising moment. However, it must be careful not to reflect the concepts (sign) when contemplating them but it must be mindful of ultimate reality of mind and body. While insight practice, the mind must be controlled to stay at point – it is called Sῑla and the mind must be concentrated on point not to be lost the point of meditation – it is called Samādhi and the mind becomes discerning ultimate reality and materiality and mentality while practicing – it is called Paňňā (wisdom). The spiritual practice that cooperates with Sῑla (morality), Samādhi (concentration) and Paňňā (wisdom) is called meditation that is the only way to lead purity of mind and finalizes practice to reach nibbāna. This study also displays that meditation is just exerting to be aware of mental behavior first arising at mind door and to recognize the moment of bodily actions reinforced by mind – it means all mental behavior and bodily actions are to be recognized while they are moving on. The four noble truths is to be realized in mind and body. The discernment of rise and fall of mental behaviors and bodily actions is the realization of the truth of suffering; when suffering is truly seen, desire is not functioned – it is removal of desire, cause of suffering; every moment of contemplating, the mind is recognizing the objects of meditation, rise and fall – it is the development of noble paths and at moment of contemplation, desire is vanished and disappearing of mind and body is recognized – it is cessation of suffering and desire. MulaMinGoneZetawonSayadaw’s writing about attainment of insight knowledge(s) step by step was not identified in this work so I highly recommend further researcher to conduct a research very interesting with respect to explanation of him on path and fruit knowledge attainment through mindfulness practice.
In Myanmar, the majority of population believes in Theravāda Buddhism and they support it in various kinds of way for its preservation and proliferation; for instance, for the promoting and purifying the Theravada Buddhism, Myanmar celebrated the two Buddhist councils, fifth in 1871 AD and sixth in 1954 AD. In a long line of Myanmar Buddha Sāsanā history, as there had been many of the distinguished well learned buddhist monks, great buddhist scholars like MingunTipitakadharasayadaw (three baskets bearer monk) in pariyatti siteso had there been numerous greatest meditation master monks like LayDiSayadaw, MulamingunSayadaw, MahasiSayadaw and MogokeSayadaw etc.- meditation masters well known as ariyas (the noble persons) in paṭipatti site. It is not skeptical that there would be in deed meditators who have already possessed the nobility attainments from sotapannahood (stream winner) up to arahantahood because the Buddha proclaimed that as long as there is middle way practice of noble eightfold paths in His sāsanā, the noble persons would not disappear. Also at present time, in Myanmar, there are not only the bhikkhu monks but also lay persons who earn their reputation as ariyas (noble persons). Since Myanmar people has preserved and consumed the pure Theravada Buddhism without being mixed with any other set of doctrines from the time of its arrival up to the present time, it is not a miraculous prize for myanmar people to have ariyas, noble persons for their great merits.
In history of myanmar paṭipatti sāsanā (teaching of meditation), there were many kinds of diverse meditation practicing methods according to different meditation masters. However, at present time, it has only five leading methods that are crowd-pleasing and that most of the people persuade – LayDi method, MulaMinGoneZetawonSayadaw method, Mahasi method, Mogoke method, PaAuk method and TheInnGu method. However different, their salient similarity is that all of their technique is primarily grounded in the teaching of the four foundation of mindfulness, Mahā saṭipatthāna Sutta but distinct formulas of their individual practice areas well good to be learned because it all came out of their talent and disposition. MulaMingun, Mahasi, Mogoke, TheInnGu applied a mere pure insight meditation method but the rest masters utilized the samathayānika (tranquility based-meditation) instead.
This research was scoped only on the most venerable MulaMinGoneZetawonSayadaw’s method, a pure insight meditation practicing technique out of diverse masters’ teachings. MulaMinGoneZetawonSayadaw was an outstanding reverend elder monk not only in buddhist literature but also in meditation during 1887s in Myanmar. He was a foremost meditation teacher of MahasiSayadaw who took responsibility of questioner in sixth buddhist council in Myanmar and is an initial residing monk of the world famous Mahasi Meditation Center in Yangon. It was he, MulaMinGoneZetawonSayadaw who initially interpreted the practice of great foundation of mindfulness into daily usage of Myanmar language and introduced it to the people that the profound teaching of it could be fully comprehended in practical way. His monk’s name is U Nārada but after he has dwelled at Zetawon monastery of the western campus, Min Gun middle forest in Sagaing division, and in Tha Htone in Mon State in Myanmar, he was well known as Tha Htone Mula Min Gun Zetawon Sayadaw. He realized nibbāna first time at his age of 40 after having practiced foundation of mindfulness meditation for three years and passed away during Mach, 1954. His body was cremated three months later after his demise but his corpse was not putrid with bad smell. It is believed a sign of arahantahood. Tikkhācāra, author of MulaMinGoneZetawonSayadaw’s biography did not mention Sayadaw’s cremation remains relics but now a memorial cetiya where his remains were enshrined is still seen in the Zeta Won monastery, Tha Htone, Mon State, Myanmar. Htay Hlaing recorded MulaMinGoneZetawonSayadaw’s brief biography and he identified that when a monk, MulaMinGoneZetawonSayadaw’s pupil raised the inquire questions to MulaMinGoneZetawonSayadaw if he had attained arahantahood, MulaMinGoneZetawonSayadaw confirmed he did not want any life and he had no more life. In this world only arahanta person has no desire for life and no more life as well even anāgāmi person desires for Suddhāvāsabrahman realm. The very first meditation master of him was the most venerable Sayadaw U Miňjῡsā, populated as AlayTawYaSayadaw who took U Nārada to Min Gun Monastery in Sagaing for particular purpose of teaching the monks and novice students there. U Nārada spent his free time in the study of all the pitaka books for a piece of message dealing with the way of meditation. Some day, U Miňjῡsā told him that it did not need to search for the reach of nibbāna in all pitaka treatises; it is available to the nibbāna only by assimilating the phrase “bhῡtaṁbhῡtatopassati - just to see the reality as they really are”. Tikkhācāra said that MulaMinGoneZetawonSayadaw remarked U Miňjῡsā did not explain wider how to contemplate foundation of mindfulness practice in detail but his very short simple discourse was knocking on MulaMinGoneZetawonSayadaw’s mind door. He researched information in all required and relevant buddhist literatures - canons, commentaries, sub-commentaries and any other reliable resources to prove U Miňjῡsā’s message, “bhῡtaṁbhῡtatopassati”. Then, he knew there is no buddha’s teaching in pitaka treatises which is disconnected to the teaching “bhῡtaṁbhῡtatopassati - just to see reality as they really are”. As result, he practiced the foundation of mindfulness meditation as taught by the Buddha in mahāsatipatthānasutta and after he realized the truth, he delivered his insight knowledge of mindfulness practice to the people. I will in this paper introduce his teaching for benefit of those interested in mindfulness practice in Theravada traditional way for easily understanding.
The focused objects of Meditation: Concepts and Realities
The meditation is of two different kinds, samathabhāvanā-tranquility meditation and vipassanābhāvanā-insight meditation according to their different goals and the focused objects. The end of samatha meditation is at reaching to the jhāna (absorption concentration) while vipassanā is leading to the paths (magga) and the fruits (phala). Anyhow, the one who has successfully attained jhāna stages can convert jhāna factors into the insight based on jhāna samādhi (absorption concentration) – it is called samathayānika vipassanā - tranquility based-insight and other one is pure insight that does not need to have jhāna as its base. The samatha is practiced by taking paňňati (concepts or signs) as its attentive object which is of 40 different types and diligently developed to get its sign or image in mind for access and absorption concentration. Contract to it, vipassanā is a practice that it attempts to see mental and material reality, individual and common characteristics existing in mind and body. It therefore is said that the focused object of vipassanā is abstract realities, paramattha.
It is necessary to distinguish between the paňňati (concept) and paramattha (reality) in order to make a decision which meditation subject is being carried out during meditation. Sometimes, it used to happen that while in sight practice even though focused point is by mistake put on the concept, we misconceive it is on reality. However, Mahasi sayadaw assumed that at the beginning, it is impossible for meditator to get objects of meditation only reality and it might slightly be mixed with concept but contemplation of insight with concept is a quick easy and conducive to enhancing Samadhi (concentration). Paňňati (concept) is literally meant just making known, nothing that really exist in this world but something that is conventionally given names by the people for recognition – for example name of “I, you, man, woman and car, house etc. outside and inside hair, eyes, ear, nose, tongue, (32) parts of body and so on and it is just a designation, imagination, not a real thing existing in the world. Even in the reality, the names such as – “eye, color and eye-consciousness etc”. and “walking, standing, sitting, lying, bending and stretching etc.” – are also included in paňňati (concept). LayDi Sayadaw also stated that while seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, touching and thinking, manifesting all in mind as “a form or a sign like man, woman, a being etc.” is paňňati (concept), the objects of samatha (tranquility). It simply means that the concepts, the psychic images are not things to be exercised in insight meditation but it is to be eschewed for getting the knowledge of reality beyond it. Paramattha literally means “ultimate reality”. The new sub-commentary on DN.ii interprets that ultimate reality is meant the most excellent, unchanged nature. According to Buddha abhidhamma, there are primarily four ultimate realities – citta (coconsciousness), cetasika (mental factors), rupa (materiality) and nibbāna (cessation of suffering). If combined, they are only mind, matter and nibbāna. According to Janakabhivaṁsa, for example - the awareness of objects of coconsciousness (citta), desirousness of greed (lobha) in metal factors (cetasika), hardness and softness of earth (pathavi) in materiality (rupa) and extinction nature of cessation (nibbāna) never change their ultimate qualities due to condition. Consequently, they are all called paramattha (absolute reality). In insight meditation, it necessitates first to recognize these qualities and then knowledge beyond them. According to Mahasi sayadaw, except for nibbāna, the rest ultimate realities have universal nature of three characteristics – impermanence, dissatisfaction and non-soul which are, therefore, called the conditioned ultimate realities. If a meditator penetrates these of characteristics by knowledge of meditation, the view of concepts like “I, you, man, woman and beings” disappear at very moment of seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, touching and thinking. Actually, the conceptualization of “I, you, man, woman, being and things” is just an idealization, a shape of mind but its reality is mere mind and matter which is influenced by three characteristics. It is an important notion that in insight meditation, the manifestation of concepts endangers development of the insight-knowledge so it is careful to give it up.
The person, if they want to practice meditation, eradicates all impediments that trigger vexation whether being priority or not; it means what kind of business they have, it has to forget it all during meditation. Otherwise, it would be a string of disturbance for them to develop the concentration, mental steadiness. In fact, meditation is just developing the morality, concentration and wisdom and rooted in purity of virtues, they are gradually cultivated. In meditation work, concentration is a significant thing without which it will not be affective to higher knowledge for realization of reality. Concentration (Samādhi) is stabilizing of mind that is transfixed with a pointed object. In insight meditation, momentary concentration (Khanikā Samādhi) is necessary; it is a momently steadiness of mind and just progressively establishment of mind on object like being placed on something without movability. It is just the controlling of mind to stick on insight objects with not missed at every moment of meditating. Mahasi Sayadaw noted that the strong momentary concentration is effective only if it drops on object non-strop. It means every contemplating moment the mind has to able to recognize the intensive objects, mind and body to see the reality of them. MulaMinGoneZetawonSayadaw made a notion that the transient persistence of mind on the reflected object is said to be the tranquility (samatha) and awareness of the pointed object is said to be the insight (vipassanā) at moment of contemplating. There are some additional prior preparations for meditation – to homage to the Buddha, to observe taking refuge in triple gems, to offer mind and body to the Buddha, send loving-kindness, to ask proficient teachers for meditation, to confess guilty that has been committed on benefiters and higher moral persons, to sit comfortable posture and to faithfully intend to nibbāna.
The particular purpose of meditation in theravāda buddhism is not just for stress-release like some people misunderstand. It is indeed right that meditation has the influential power to reduce mind-stress but it is not a hierarchical aim of it. In mahā sati patthāna sutta, the Buddha indicated five dimensions of meditational objective – to purify the ill-mind, to extinct the sorrow and lamentation, to overcome pain and mental agitation, to possess the knowledge (s) and to attain nibbāna. The final destination of meditation is to reach to the nibbana but for attainment of nibbāna, it must basically have some incomes of fundamental insight knowledge prior to the enlightenment of nibbāna. MulaMinGoneZetawonSayadaw analyzed there are sixteen kinds of insight knowledge that are compulsorily crossed over to see the dhamma of nibbāna as identified in visuddhi magga atthakathā – the knowledge of discerning separately mentality-materiality, the knowledge of discerning the cause of mentality and materiality, the knowledge of rise and fall, the knowledge of discerning only dissolution, the knowledge of appearance as terror, the knowledge of contemplation as danger, the knowledge of contemplation as disgust, the knowledge of desire for deliverance, the knowledge of reflexing, the knowledge of equanimity towards formations, the knowledge of path and fruit (it includes knowledge of conformity, of change of lineage and of reflection).
Furthermore, there is a terribly important caution with respect to insight meditation – when undertaking insight meditation, the beginners should place mind focus on very present continuous moment of mind and matter until the present progressive insight objects remain gone past. The realities of mind and matter are the objects to be contemplated in insight meditation and mind and matter are the things that could be in past, that can be in present and will in the future. Of course, anyhow, the beginners should not observe the past objects that have already disappeared as well as they should not follow future objects not coming yet but only objects at present continuous moment is recognized to contemplate insight. They should mindfully note the interminable present objects which used to renew it. MulaMinGoneZetawonSayadaw reminded that a new coming object should not be persuaded and the old objects that have already passed over should not be recalled as well and he suggested that the meditator (s) do not attend to objects to appear and disappear but they do contemplate the situation of mind and matter which are occurring at every present moment. He explained that trying to appear is a function of greed and to disappear is the function of anger and missing to note every presence of mind and matter is ignorant. It is because the particular aim of insight meditation that is significantly important is to be the realization of arising and perishing moment of mind and matter.
MulaMinGoneZetawonSayadaw’s Meditation Technique
The MulaMinGoneZetawonSayadaw’s meditation technique is a practice of the foundation of mindfulness (mahā saṭipatthāna). The mindfulness meditation is a habitual application of mindfulness (sati) firmly established by fastening the wandering mind to the meditation objects with vigilance. Regardless of different adherent methods, it is significant to enhance power of mindfulness so that it can fix the mind on the targeted objects to implement meditation task of realization of truths. It is the entry into insight knowledge and is the only way to get rid of sufferings for liberation from life circle. MahasiSayadaw contended that without mindfulness development, no insight knowledge are self-experienced and even the one who has attained path and fruit at sitting place at end of Buddha’s discourse would probably maturate her understanding through mindfulness. It indicates the mindfulness practice is the only way to prosper the noble wisdom for freedom.
As is indicated by AlayTawyaSayadaw, vipassanā (insight) is just knowledge of “bhῡtaṁbhῡtatopassati - seeing the reality as they really are”. MulaMinGoneZetawonSayadaw traced its profound meaning searched in Mahā saṭipatthāna Sutta and compared it with another different relevant buddhist texts. Finally, he was determined that all buddha’s teaching is connected to the sense of “bhῡtaṁbhῡtatopassati” and it is apparent and adequately complete message for insight practice.
“Bhῡtaṁ - reality” hereby refers to ultimate reality of mind and body;
“bhῡtato - in true way” means by means of mindfulness practice all included in noble eightfold paths and
“passati- to see” represents realizing the reality (characteristics) of mind and body with contemplative powers – to set up self-belief, institute the potential effort and boost the influencing mindfulness, to strengthen concentration and thoroughly understanding. MulaMinGoneZetawonSayadaw explained that the animate has two different entities, mind and body – the mind out of them cannot stand alone with no the focused object so it is always looking for something to be made an object of thought. The objects that the consciousness used to naturally take is also solely mind and body. The mind and body of a person, therefore, become itself the objects to be meditated; it is the true meditated objects for mindfully observation. He idealized that when the normal consciousness naturally attends to a certain object, the attention moment must mindfully and vigilantly be contemplated to separately be aware of two different substances – the consciousness taking objects and the objects (mind or matter) that the consciousness recognizes. Actually, the meditation is a spiritual working process of causality such as – ordinary consciousness, its objects and meditating consciousness. According to this perception, the meditation applicable process should be conceptualized as follow:
Figure 1: Theoretical Framework of Meditation.
The original consciousness is used to naturally think of something all the time without which does not to operate. According to Abhidhamma (also see: abhidhamma pitaka), the mind is going in process one after another as the proceeding consciousness and the following consciousness. The normal consciousness first falling into objects is called proceeding consciousness and consciousness that is persuaded by another new consciousness is the following consciousness (meditating consciousness). The continuous moment of consciousness recognizing an object has to be grasped by the upcoming consciousness – the catching of proceeding consciousness by upcoming consciousness with mindfulness is called meditation. It must be gradually developed that the original consciousness thinking of objects is recognized by next coming consciousness (second consciousness) and the second consciousness is also seized by the upcoming consciousness while in insight practice, not for beginners. It means that the meditators must be aware of the heading consciousness (regular consciousness) by the following consciousness at very present moment of mind operating. If such a practice becomes habitual, then the realization in the mind will be apparent that the consciousness making an object of thought is a substance and the object into which the consciousness falls is another substance. Such awareness is called “insight knowledge of discerning mentality-materiality out of 16 types as mentioned above.
According to mahāsatipatthānasutta, mind and body that are the meditated objects of insight practice are categorized as four groups – body, sensation, consciousness and dhamma (nature). MulaMinGoneZetawonSayadaw classified that amongst these four categories, the body group deals with contemplation on materiality; sensation group and consciousness group concern with mere mind and the dhamma group is a mixed method with mind and body contemplation. He importantly reminded that the beginners have to repeatedly practice only mindfulness of contemplation on body at beginning. It is because he believed that the consciousness is entirely relied on the body so if body is vigilantly contemplated, the consciousness would have been penetrated itself. Tikkhācāra compared that such an idea of MulaMinGoneZetawonSayadaw is absolutely consistent with exposition in visuddhi magga “the body is frequently contemplated, and then the consciousness would be transparent itself”. LayDiSayadaw also started insight meditation from body contemplation – four elements practice.
Even in contemplation of mindfulness on body, he analyzed the facts that out of six sub-categories of contemplation on body such as – section on breath-in and breath-out, on posture, on attention, on elements and on repulsiveness and on corpses, only three – contemplation on posture, attention and element – was taught by the Buddha for insight meditation practice but the rest meditation subjects in body contemplation are just described for samatha (tranquility) meditation. In addition, MulaMinGoneZetawonSayadaw preciously cautioned that out of three sections preached for insight-meditation in body contemplation of mindfulness, it is necessary to have to complete only the four postures – walking, standing, sitting, lying down because the meditation subjects in section on attention of physical behaviors (sampajaňňapabba) and those in section on elements (dhatumanasikārapabba) are completely covered if the four postures are contemplated instead.
To practically take insight meditation of mindfulness, MulaMinGoneZetawonSayadaw gave advice to embark meditation from whatever the consciousness is aware of with great effort, mindfulness, concentration and wisdom based on self-belief. According to him, the moments into which the consciousness falls, are activity moment of four postures and the contacting moment of the inner doors with the outer sensual objects. Insight, it means, gets started from obvious one of these two kinds of moment, the object of it. The postures are as described above – walking, standing, sitting and lying down, only four moments and the contacting moments are the moment of seeing sight, hearing the voice, smelling odor, tasting flavors, touching the tangible objects and thinking of the mind-objects, only six contacts. The four postures and six contacts are composed of in mind and matter that are the reality to be made exercise of insight meditation.
Consumption of Insight in MulaMinGoneZetawonSayadaw Way
MulaMinGoneZetawonSayadaw instructed practice of insight as displayed in Visuddhi Maggathat the beginners must initiate his meditation subjects from the contemplation on physical movement – the contemplation of four postures in the body contemplation. According to IriyapathaPabba (posture section) in MahāsatipatthānaSutta, MulaMinGoneZetawonSayadaw tutored that the meditation subjects to be mindfully contemplated are – “walking nature, standing nature, sitting nature and lying nature while performing these activities”. He explained about postures contemplation more detail – at moment of walking, it mindfully reflects “walking…walking” by paying attention on movement of walking; at moment of standing, it mindfully reflects “standing…..standing” by recognizing the movement of standing or body-uprising; at moment of sitting, it cautiously reflects “sitting….sitting” by focusing the mind on motive and posture of sitting; and at moment of lying down, it is mindfully contemplated “ lying…..lying…..by putting cognitive focus on the position of lying down.This is the contemplation on the large postures and is correspondingly called walking meditation, standing meditation, sitting meditation and lying meditation in present day. He moreover justified that the four postures meditation subjects have to be contemplated by special means that all small bodily activities or movements can be overall conscious– by means of large posture meditation, medium posture meditation and small posture meditation as identified in section of posture and section of attention in Mahā saṭipatthāna Sutta. The practice of just “walking, standing, sitting and lying postures” is called the large posture practice because they have long period. Each of large postures includes two sub-postures – moving forwards and moving backwards. Their movement period is medium so they are called medium postures. The moment of the forward and backward motions are also mindfully reflected while acting them when walking, standing, sitting and lying down. He pointed out that while sitting, bending waist forwards and backwards is moving forwards and backwards – they are the objects to be mindful “ moving forwards and backwards” and while lying, lying at full length on belly is moving forwards and lying on the back is moving backwards – they are also to be reflected “moving forwards and backwards”. This is contemplation of postures by medium means. He specified the meditation on small motions by special means that in undertaking walking meditation, it should mindfully be made a note as “stepping separately while moving the left step and the right step, raising...while lifting foot, stretching…while carrying the foot, avoiding...while bypassing the foot, releasing….while dropping down the foot, placing…while putting the foot on the ground and pressing…while making the foot press on the ground”.
MahasiSayadaw, however, gave a notion that while waking quickly, it should be exercised noting “left step and right step” but while walking slowly, it should be observed “lifting, stretching, avoiding, releasing, placing and pressing”. However, he preferred to be mindful of three stages in walking meditation – “lifting, moving forwards and placing down by paying attention on the sole of the foot from the point of lifting the leg to the point of placing it down as it moves instead of specific reflections instructed by MulaMinGoneZetawonSayadaw. However, he advised to take only two stages at beginning “ lifting while raising foot” by attention on the upward movement of the foot from the starting point to the end and “ placing down” by fixing attention on the downward movement from the beginning to the ends. This is exercised at first two or three days until concentration is strong. MahasiSayadaw commented that while walking at beginning, it normally happens that when a leg is put down, the other leg is raised to start next step but it should not be allowed to occur. The next step is started after the first step completes. MahasiSayadaw explained about sitting meditation that when one wants to sit down, the one notes first “desire for sitting” and then makes the note on “stopping” if the one stops walking for sitting. In this way, if the one wants to act, the one first notes “desire” and then follows to make note all of movement like bending, stretching, placing, lifting, and so on. It should be noted the same on the lying, standing and walking posture as well.
According to MulaMinGoneZetawonSayadaw, walking is moving the erect body; standing is stopping with erect body; sitting is keeping upper part of body erect and bending the lower parts of body down and lying is placing the whole body in bending and stretching. These all are the objects of insight to be mindfully observed by beginners. Furthermore, MulaMinGoneZetawonSayadaw encouraged to mindfully contemplate the successive moments of activities – “ looking straight ahead, looking backwards, looking the right side and left side, looking down and up; and bending of, stretching of limbs, eating, drinking, chewing, savoring, urinating, defecating, walking, standing, falling asleep, walking, speaking, being silent” as described in attention section in MahāsaṭipatthānaSutta. As the Buddha preached to contemplate overall actions of body like someone brings the oil bowl on which the mindfulness is placed not to overflow, it should mindfully observe all activities of body by starting from the apprehend object. When the obvious action is begun to be exercised, it should note only the point which is mindful of but the missed point is ignored because only the mindfully observation is called insight. MulaMinGoneZetawonSayadaw guaranteed that if all bodily actions are mindfully contemplated, the mind is not scattered but the mind is convenient and all defilements all flaw away. Moreover, MulaMinGoneZetawonSayadaw clarified further point of contemplation on posture for gradual development of insight knowledge that moment of walking contains three substances – desire to move, the activeness of mind born-air element by desire and the movement of body by force of air. These three together is called walking to be noted. Therefore, the walking moment includes two points to be meditated – the movement of body by force of consciousness (walking) and the cognitive that is falling into it. It should be understood that when meditating “the walking”, it must be mindfully aware of two substances separately – “walking” and “the consciousness that is recognizing the walking”. Herein, walking means the movement of body, consciousness means normal mind which is naturally getting the object of movement and “aware” means “the meditating consciousness that is cooperating with mindfulness and understanding to catch the walking and consciousness that moves the body. MulaMinGoneZetawonSayadaw explained it the contemplation of the proceeding mind by the following mind that is the meditated mind and he claimed in this way, insight must be practiced and it is able to gain the higher insight knowledge step by step. The rest three postures are also understood in the same way. Every tiny actions of body is exercised insight in this way – supposed, undertaking the walking meditation, it becomes to separately know the material process which arise before walking and during walking, the mental process that is normally conscious of walking and the mind (understanding) that separately discerns the walking and consciousness aware of walking. The last consciousness is called insight knowledge. The normal consciousness has quality to know all sense.
He commented that when this practice becomes habitual and the mind stabilizes, it will appear the knowledge itself to discern the mentality and materiality on the every action of postures. He also represented the way of arising the discerning knowledge of mind and matter at contemplating moment of postures – when the meditation subjects are repeatedly absorbed in mind eye with sharp steadiness, the new knowledge arise and it becomes to know that the meditating consciousness falling into the postures is one substance and the meditated objects, postures are another different things. Such knowledge is called the first basic knowledge of insight from which higher insight knowledge will be developed up to the path and fruit wisdom. Therefore, it needs to make effort first to know just walking and then it will see deeper and deeper into mind and matter, the difference at walking moment. When the walking is mindfully contemplated by understanding separate moment of mind matter in this way, the material process before walking and the material process presenting in walking are fade away from grasping mental defilements and the material process appears in mind as “portion” one after another. In same way, mental process which notes the material process also appears in mind as “a piece”. This is called knowledge of discerning materiality-mentality, basic knowledge of insight. After thoroughly having realized the mind and matter at walking moment, it should continue meditating the object of mind and matter. Then, at moment of walking, it becomes to know first the desire to walk and secondly moving. In that case, it should be note desire arising first and then continue to note walking. After that, it automatically understands the cause and effect – waking due to desire. Understanding the desire is realizing the cause and knowing walking is discerning the effect. In this case, it is naturally understood there is no one who walks and the one who feels the walking but cause and effect. This is called the knowledge of discerning cause and effect. After that, it comes to reflect that the present walking did not come from the after walking and will not follow to the next walking but it disappears in present walking. It reflects that the process of mind and matter do not bring each other to continue but disappear at place of occurrence. This is called the knowledge of reflecting mind and matter. Then, the next knowledge arises that every time of walking, owing to mindfully contemplating the mind and matter at walking, the new moments arise after the old moments fall, nothing continuous but just rise and fall.
Figure 2: Insight Practices on Four Postures and Actions.
Then, the characteristic of impermanence is transparent to the mind itself. This is the knowledge of rise and fall. Likewise, next knowledge will be continued by contemplating rise and fall of mind and matter at walking moment. He as a result urged to begin insight meditation with just being mindful of walking while in walking, standing while in standing, sitting while in sitting and lying while in lying down. He proclaimed that not only in walking meditation, every action of body – looking, bending, stretching etc. is also recognized in similar way to develop the knowledge. The consequent knowledge of insight will follow in accordance with the balance of effort, mindfulness, concentration and understanding.
In brief, the actual insight meditation is just to make effort to know the bases where the mind falls into. Additional to the four postures where the respective consciousness arise based on the mind door consciousness, there are another six kinds of moment that subsequent consciousness arise – the eye-consciousness when eyes and visible signs come in contact, ear consciousness when ear and voice come in contact, nose consciousness when nose and odor come in contact, tongue consciousness when the tongue and flavor come in contact, body consciousness when the body and tangible objects come in contact and thought when the mind door and mind-object come in contact. At moment that the eyes and sight view come in contact with each other, the eye-consciousness arises; such an eye consciousness arising moment is called “seeing sight” and it is the object to be meditated due to that it is base the consciousness falls into. The rests of contemplation are also understood in the same way. Therefore, it should be noticed that there are six kinds of moment to raise the perspective consciousness – seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, touching and thinking. According to MalukyaputtaSutta, while seeing the sight, it is reflected as “seeing”, “ hearing” while hearing voice, “ smelling” while smelling the odor, “ tasting” while tasting the flavor, “ touching” while touching tangible objects and “ thinking” while thinking the mind objects but it does not follow to the sensual objects to perceive and feel it what they are. According to MahāsaṭipatthānaSutta,and SasakkaSutta, these are else insight objects to be contemplated – five aggregates (matter aggregate, sensation aggregate, perception aggregate, mental formation aggregate and consciousness aggregate), six inner bases (eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and thought), six outer bases (sight, voice, odor, flavor, tangible objects and mind object), six consciousness (eye consciousness, ear consciousness, nose consciousness, tongue consciousness, body consciousness and mind-consciousness), six contacts (eye contact, ear contact, nose contact, tongue contact, body contact and heart contact), six sensation (eye contact born sensation, ear contact born sensation, nose contact born sensation, tongue contact born sensation, body contact born sensation and heart contact born sensation) and six cravings ( craving for sight, for voice, for odor, for flavor, for body touch and for thought) – to be realized. MulaMinGoneZetawonSayadaw explained that if it is contemplating “seeing” while seeing the sight, “hearing” while hearing voice, “tasting” while tasting flavor, “smelling” while smelling odor, “touching” while touching the tangible objects and “thinking” while thinking the thought, it has covered contemplating overall all of ultimate realities – aggregates, inner bases, outer bases (senses), consciousness, contacts, sensation and cravings displayed above because he explained that the seeing moment contains five substances – the eye sensitive matter, visible forms contacting to the eyes, the eye consciousness recognizing the sight, the contact of three things (eye, sight and eye consciousness) and sensation. The moment in which these five natural things meet together, is called “seeing”. Likewise, these five natures are indeed involved in the moment of hearing, smelling, tasting, touching and thinking as well. These five things are ultimate realities to be realized in insight meditation.
In fact, only consciousness has capability to think of all sensual objects. In case of seeing, seeing or awareness of visible forms is the function of eye-consciousness, not power of knowledge produced by meditation. MulaMinGoneZetawonSayadaw made clear that initially seeing something is normally recognized by eye-consciousness that emerges from life-continuum that has heart its base and it accommodates the seeing with three physical and psychological facts – eye sensitive matter, sensual sights and eye-consciousness – in brief seeing includes only mind (eye consciousness) and matter (eye and visible form). According to him, it is understood that when eye contacts to something for seeing, eye consciousness is normally aware of it what it is. In such a case, eye consciousness that is recognizing something is caught by a piece of another mind thus “eye is seeing something”. Herein eye consciousness is the proceeding mind and the mind focusing on it is the following mind or meditating mind that cooperates with effort, mindfulness, concentration and understanding. It means while seeing something, the visible forms obviously appears but eye consciousness just knows only the color. However, for meditation, visible form needs to be noted by eye consciousness again and again. This time, eye-consciousness might realize only the matter of visible form in division owing to the repeated contemplation. After the eye-consciousness becomes matured, it must be noted by the following consciousness. If meditated in this way, not only visible form but also eye-consciousness that is recognizing the form is also separately realized while seeing sight. This is actual insight knowledge. By this knowledge, at moment of seeing, it is envisioned – the material process (eye) that sees and mental process that normally recognizes the sight and the consciousness that knows that it is contemplating the seeing that accommodates the eye, form and eye-consciousness. This sort of knowledge clearly appears without being mixed with any mental defilement. From this insight knowledge, it trails other hierarchical knowledge up to the paths and the fruits.
Figure 3: Meditating while Inner bases and Outer bases are coming in Contact.
The same contribution with respect to the rest moments – hearing, smelling, tasting, touching and thinking is understood in this way. Undertaking meditation at seeing moment etc.-, it is necessary to realize three substances – eye, visible form, eye consciousness, contact and sensation at moment of performing their functions. When meditation is practiced, it is inevitably able to experience the sensation. The sensation is also something to be contemplated for realization of it. The sensation is psychological feeling but it has basically three things – good feeling, bad feeling and neutral feeling. They all are used to arise based on body or mind. The sensation or feelings arise while seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, touching and thinking and while acting the postures. Therefore, if it sees the mind and matter at these moments, it easily can contemplate the feelings as well. Mostly, in body, it encounters the bed feeling at beginning of sitting meditation. Whatever feeling arises in body or mind, it does not focus meditating mind on part of body where the feeling occurs because the parts of body (kaya) are concepts (Paňňati) and insight is of object of realities. It must be put an industrious emphasis just on the feeling to know its nature. It means it does not feel it good and bad but just be aware of it in natural mind – it keeps the mind focus away from physical parts of body (kaya). The feeling is a piece of mental factor, not bodily factors so it does not consider of body if it feels. When it realizes only the nature of feelings in mind, it automatically sees impermanence, suffering, and non-soul of feelings (a.k.a. anicca, dukkha, and anatta in Pali). To practice just to be aware of feelings is to see these natures. MogokeSayadaw commented that when impermanent nature of feelings is seen, it no longer feels it good or bad. It is said to be overcoming the sorrow and lamentation in MahāsaṭipatthānaSutta. MulaMinGoneZetawonSayadaw did not mention the insight on feelings but he represented it must realize the sensation as well at moment of seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, touching and thinking additional to behaving the postures. According to his idea, it should be understood that if insight is contemplated in seeing etc.-, it automatically realizes the sensation as well because sensation is included in moment of seeing etc.
Realization of the four noble truths
MulaMinGoneZetawonSayadaw gave incredible explanation regarding the four noble truths in application of insight – truth of suffering to be known, truth of cause of suffering to be wiped out, truth of cessation of suffering to be realized and truth of path leading to cessation of suffering to be developed. He pointed that in insight meditation, momentary suffering of five aggregates of clinging is hereby a wanted suffering for practice. The presence of arising of them is called “birth or rise” and presence of falling of them is called “death or fall”. The starting point of rise of aggregates is arising moment and the ending point of fall of aggregates is perishing moment. If the beginning of rise and the termination of rise are exposed in understanding, it is called the emergence of mind and matter. Of four noble truths, suffering herein means the rise and fall moment of five aggregates of clinging. For example, while contemplating the seeing if rise and fall of mind and matter is seen, it might realize the rise and fall of five aggregates of clinging because five aggregates of clinging such as – eye and visible form, eye consciousness, contact, sensation are involved in seeing moment; it is just called realization of truth of suffering. The desire is the root cause of existence of suffering and it is called the noble truth of cause of suffering that is dispensable for mental purification. The spiritual phenomenon, desire has ignorance its leading cause. The ignorance is a psychological constraint to see reality as they really are. In reality, desire and ignorance are inseparable mental components but ignorance is a led psychological factor that is a root cause of all unwholesome consciousness as well. Owing to ignorance of absolute truth of mind and matter’s characteristics, the mind attaches to the mind and matter itself while seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, touching and thinking. These six doors are the places that the mind desires. It is, therefore, said that as the dwelling place which is not well roofed is pierced by rains, so are the doors which are not kept closed entered by the desire. MulaMinGoneZetawonSayadaw explained that because it is not mindful of seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, touching and thinking during their continuous moments, the mind desires all of them. It means because of not mindfulness while in their functions, the mind ignores the reality of them and so it desires them. The ignorance is counted suffering in reality and desire is cause of suffering so when they cooperate with, the beings are totally suffered in life circle. He remarked that because these two mental factors are twined together, it is impossible to thoroughly understand the suffering. Because of not contemplation with mindfulness, suffering is ignored to be the truth and because of ignorance, it desires for them. The ignorance and desire are correlated to. It should, therefore, be understood that if the mind and matter arising while doors are contacting with sense are truly not discerned to be the suffering, they would deliberately be sensate for desire but when the mind is conscious of suffering in mind and body through insight, the desire does not come to mind and the mind is fade away from desire as well. It is called the removal of the noble truth of cause of suffering, desire. It should, so, be inferred that if it mindfully notes while seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, touching and thinking, desire is evacuated from mind as well as suffering is visualized. The truth of extinction is meant the reality of cessation of desire without arising at continuous moment of seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, touching and thinking if mindfully meditated. It also means that it needs to be mindful of them, six continuous moments. If their moments are mindfully contemplated, the reality of suffering in mind and matter at their continuous moment is envisioned. Due to realization of suffering at moments of six doors and six sense contact, sensation is not felt for craving and then desire would not arise. Not arising desire, while apprehending thoroughly suffering so called rise and fall in mind and body at every moment of contemplation, is meant extinction of it: it is called cessation of desire, a cause of suffering. The path leading to cessation of suffering is actually meant practice of noble eightfold path. In fact, the meditation is defined developing the controlling (sῑla), concentration (samādhi) and wisdom (saňňā). According to MulaMinGoneZetawonSayadaw, Sῑla is just controlling the six doors – eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and mind not to arise greed, hatred and delusion; Samādhi is a concentrated mind stable at moment of functioning of ultimate realities; and Paňňā (wisdom) is just knowledge to realize the presenting ultimate realities. During contemplating at moment of four postures and seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, touching and thinking, there is no greed, hatred and delusion because controlling the doors; it is called sῑla. While contemplating, the meditating mind quietly stabilizes on meditated objects; it is called samādhi and every moment of meditating, it is basically discerning the mind and matter; it is called Paňňā. In brief, the mind which is well guarded not to let any of defilements arise, is controlling (sῑla). The mind stabilizing on meditated object, not wonder to other objects, is called concentration (samādhi) and while contemplating with mindfulness, concentration and wisdom, the meditating mind which is seeing the suffering of raise and fall or mind and matter, is called wisdom (Paňňā). The realization of sῑla, samādhi and Paňňā at meditating moment is said to be realization of truth of path leading to cessation.
MulaMinGoneZetawonSayadaw’s remarkable note with respect to in breath and out breath meditation is also very interesting and noticeable for insight development. It is said that while breathing in and out, it must know three things – sign, in breath and out breath. Nostril or upper lip is sign where the breathing air hits when it crosses over; in breath is air which breathes in and out breath is air which breathes out. While breathing in and out, it must be mindful of in breath and out breath hitting the sign of nostril or upper lip. It prohibits following in breath and out breath but it exerts to be mindful of air at crossing moment of nostril or lip like the sawyers cut a wood. When they cut the wood with handsaw, they do not follow incoming saw and outgoing saw but they keep the mind on the focus where the saw crosses. Likewise, the mindfulness is kept on a point the breath air crosses at nostril or lip. It should not reflect the air but the point air crosses. In case of contemplating in this way, air is apparent, mind is not dissipated, mind and matter of contemplation becomes comfortable, impurity of meditation disappears, thinking extinguishes, pervading defilements disappears, latent disposition is spoiled and in breath and out breath meditation is possessed.
Meditation is according to MahāsatipatthānaSutta a mental culture that is the only way of cleaning up the ill of mind and cultivating the knowledge by which to see the reality of mind and matter and nibbāna. The mind (mind door consciousness so called Bhaviἠga–life continuum) is originally pure but it is dirtied by ills of mind, mental defilements like greed, hatred and delusion.It is true that mind is originally white quality and it is primary arising with purity while mind door and heart base contact with each other but because at purely arising moment the reality of it is not comprehensively meditated, it runs possessively accompanied with delusion influenced-cognitive factors and then it goes unpurified only into mental process – arising moment, persisting moment and perishing moment. Actually, the perspective consciousness –eye consciousness, ear consciousness, nose consciousness, tongue consciousness, body consciousness and mind-door consciousness – is used to arise based on life-continuum consciousness that has heart its base to raise the consciousness. The origin of life-continuum consciousness naturally exists with purity before five doors consciousness knocks on itbut when it comes together with five sets of consciousness (five door consciousness) like eye, ear, nose, tongue and body, it shifts itself into ills of unwholesome rooted in greed, hatred and delusion if individual intention is paid for sensual objects pleasant or unpleasant. It could be said that mind is defiled with mind and so it can solely be cleaned up with mind as well in reverse. The beings are at all relied on the consciousness that heads the beings to their dispositional suited-directions. If dirty mind leads them, they will reach to misery destination while if they are forerun by pure mind, they will have a pleasant destination. Therefore, it is said “doing evils synthesizes oneself dusts, restraining from evil commission decontaminates oneself purity and purity and impurity is not depended on others but oneself”. The pure minded persons will have comfortable life and it will too free from being suffered. MulaMinGoneZetawonSayadaw found a right way of terminating the dusts of evil out of mind, that leads comfortable life and to escape from snare of life circle. He contributed fundamental instruction how to undertake the mindfulness meditation in right way pretty effective to development of knowledge (s) up to path and fruit that remains the ills of mind entirely purified. In mahā saṭipatthāna sutta, the mindfulness insight practice is wider explained by means of body contemplation, sensation contemplation, consciousness contemplation and dhamma contemplation and each chapter varies in many sections with various kinds of factors of meditating way that gets beginners confused. However, MulaMinGoneZetawonSayadawcould search a simple technique of insight based on the word “ to see reality as they really are” exposed by his teacher monk, AlayTawYaSayadaw and simply pointed out a comprehensive way according to his study and experience that there is only ten places in a person to undertake insight meditation – the four postures like walking, standing, sitting and lying down and six consciousness arising moments like eye consciousness moment, ear consciousness moment, nose consciousness moment, tongue consciousness moment, body consciousness moment and thinking consciousness moment. According to his idea, these places for practice of insight meditation cover all factors such as – five aggregates and four great elements etc. described in the four kinds of mindfulness – body, sensation, consciousness and dhamma. In authentic application, insight should be started from transparent one of these ten kinds of meditated moment – for example, while walking, if vice is obviously knocked on the mind, the voice should be focused as “hearing…..hearing” and in same way, while hearing, if sitting is wanted, note as “sitting……sitting” and while sitting, if something is look at, reflect as “seeing…seeing” and so on. He, however, reminded that when insight is meditated, your meditated object must be ultimate reality arising at continuous moment in present time and it should not recall the past, not fore-think the future but place mind on very present situation. According to his explanation, it should be understood that insight meditation is exercised with full observation of three kinds of noble training such as – Sῑla (morality), Samādhi (concentration) and Paňňā (wisdom). Sῑla actually means self-guarding the mind not to enter into evil objects or it is also well watched not to lose the point of meditating in contemplating moment. Samādhi in deed means concentrating the mind on and fixing it with meditated object under control so that the mind can drop on meditated objects every contemplating moment. It is just stabilizing the mind to be aware of every meditating moment. The momentary concentration is hereby necessarily needed. Paňňā is the discerning of mentality-materiality at contemplating moment. Prior knowledge in insight is awareness of reality of two distinct substances – mental and bodily conditions arising while activities of meditation or daily actives are performed. It is just to be aware of all mental behaviors and psychical actions not missed during their presenting. In psychological behaviors and physical actions, mental character arises first – it should be discerned and then it forces the body to physically behave – it should also be discerned else too. Form such a stage it should advance knowledge from discerning mind and matter up to path and fruit wisdom through self-belief, diligence, mindfulness, concentration and wisdom. I would like to recommend further researcher to conduct a research of insight meditation about how to attain insight knowledge step by step and finally enter into path stream as explained by MulaMinGoneZetawonSayadaw in his book in wider. I could not do it because if it is studied, it would take a big research paper.
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HtayHlaing, YahandarNantPuggohtuMyar, pp.297, 418, 18, 629; Ba Than, MahasiHtemyatAhtut Pat, p.62; Kyaw Thein, MogokeSayadawpayargyiEiHterupattiHnantKyintSain, p. 35.
DN.ii. p 125.MahaparinibbanaSutta identifies “ Yasamincakhodhammavinayeariyoatthingikomaggoupalabbhati, samanotatthaupalabbhati”; Its commentary(DN-A. p.181) explains the term “samano” thatit is hereby referred to the four kinds of noble person”.
According to LayDiSayadaw, AnapanaDipani,pp.5-61., his method is said to be the samathayanika– tranquility based-meditation.
MulaMinGoneZetawonSayadaw,Vipassana Nyan SainKyam, p. 40. describes that insight is started at moment of six doors and six objects contact to each other: it is just a mare pure insight meditation.
Mahasi Method is also a sole pure insight practice; it is explained byMahasiSayadaw,Vippasana Shu NeiKyam, Vol.i.,p. 18.that insight is started with contemplating the arising and falling moment of abdomen; it is technique of pure insight method which is an integrated method in breathe in and out.
Mogoke Methodis also a bear pure insight method that the nature at moment of doors and objects’ contact is focused by the contemplating mind. KanNyunt, MogokeVipassana, p. 18.
 Pa Auk Method is a samathayanika -tranquility based-meditation. Pa Auk Sayadaw, NibbanThwaryarDakyaung De ThoLan, p. 195; Pa AutSayadaw, Wipathana, p. 28-36.
The Inn Gu method is also tranquility based- meditation.Candima, 7 YatTayarSakhanNibban Lam, p. 51-87.
HtayHlaing,YahandarNantPuggohtuMyar, p. 422.(I will refer this book later “ HtayHlaing”.)
Tikkhācāra, ZetawonSayadaw Bayar GyiEiHtayruppatti, p. 50. (I will refer this book later “ Tikkhacara”.)
Adiccavaṁsa, Buddha Tharthanar, p. 127.
ThwayChwan, “ MahasiSayadawpayagyiEiTharthanaNgarHtaung Shin Dam”, pp. 19-20.
HtayHlaing, p. 431; Tikkhacara, pp. 49-50.
Tikkhācāra, pp. 21, 71, 76.
HtayHlaing, p. 453.
Tikkhācāra, p. 19.
ibhi-A.i. – defines that samatha means “the nature that extinguishes sensual desire etc. - mental opponents” p.95. andCul-Ni explains that samatha is stability of mind and concentration. It is just power of concentration. p. 296.
ibid, p. 211. It explains that it is jhāna because closely thinking of earth kasina etc. – objects. It is just full or absorption concentration.
ibid, p. 95. It comments that it is called vipassanā because which is to see (mind and matter) by impermanence etc. - various kinds of means. It is just knowledge.
MahasiSayadaw, KamahtanTayarArhtutYa Chin Akyaung, p. 3-5.
Nandamala, “ Samatha and Vipassana” pp. 6-28, 46-49.
LayDiSayadaw, “KamahtamKyamGyi” p. 356; SN-A.i. p. 249.
MahasiSayadaw, KamahtanTayarArhtutYa Chin Akyaung,p.49.
Janakabhivamsa, “ Thingyo Bar Thar Tikar” p. 8.
MahasiSayadaw, “ Vipassana Shu NeiKyam” pp. 204-206.
 LayDiSayadaw, “KamahtamKyamGyi” pp. 356-357.
DN. ii.Nt. p.400.
Janakabhivamsa, ThingyoBar Thar Tikar, pp. 8-12.
MahasiSayadaw, Vipassana Shu NeiKyam, pp.197-121.
DN.ii. p. 186.“ for those who fully observe morality, concentration improves and it is fruitful; those who have developed concentration, wisdom increased and it is beneficial; the mind of those who have developed the wisdom totally escapes from mental cankers”.
SN.ii. p. 12.“Monk…….develop concentration. The mindful and steady mind is only able to see reality as they really are.”
Abhi-A. i. p. 165
SaratthaṬ.ii. p. 244; Visud-Ṭ.i. p. 342.
MahasiSayadaw, Vipassana Shu NeiKyam, p. 103.
MulaMinGoneZetawonSayadaw, Thu Dani PaungChut, p. 37; MN.iii.p. 337.
BuddhabhatharLat Sway Kyam, Vol ii.pp. 464- 465; MahasiSayadaw, Vipassana Shu NeiAkyineChut, pp.39-40.
MulaMinGoneZetawonSayadaw, “Thu Dani PaungChut”, pp. 4-10; Nanamoli, the Path of Purification, p. 662.
MulaMinGoneZetawonSayadaw, Thu Dani PaungChut, pp. 258-260; MN.iii.p.226.
MN-A.i. p. 234.
Mahasisayadaw, MahasatipatthanaNissaya, pp. 9-10.
MulaMinGoneZetawonSayadaw, “ Thu Dani PaungChut”, pp. 1-4. I will refer this book later “ MulaMinGoneZetawonSayadaw”.
Janakabhivamsa, “Thin Gyo Bar Thar Tikar”, p. 218-227.
MulaMinGoneZetawonSayadaw, p. 5.
DN.ii., p. 231.
MulaMinGoneZetawonSayadaw, pp. 52-53.
Tikkhacara, p. 28.
Visud.ii, p. 225. “rῡpameopunappunaṁsammasitabbaṁmanasikātabbaṁpariggahetabbaṁvavatthapetthabbaṁ. Yathayathahissarῡpaṁsivikkhalitaṁhotinijjatisuparisuddhi, tathatathatadarammanaarῡpameosayameopakatāhonti”.
LayDiSayadaw, KamahtamKyam, pp. 353-375.
 “In breath and out breath is should be mindful to know the air of being long, short, the whole, calm crossing at nostril. Postures are– walking, standing, sitting and lying down at the moment of which mindfulness is developed. Attention is –on ‘while looking straight ahead, looking elsewhere, bending of, stretching of limbs, carrying alms-bowl, wearing robes, eating, drinking, chewing, savoring, urinating, defecating, walking, standing, falling asleep, walking, speaking, being silent’. Contemplation on impulsiveness is reflecting on all tiny parts of body like ‘head hair, body hair, skin, flesh, sinews, bones, marrow, kidneys, heart, livers, membranes, spleen, lungs, intestines, mysentery, gorge, faces, brain, bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, solid fat, tears, liquid fats, saliva, mucus, synovic fluid and urine’. Elements mindfully practiced are ‘earth, water, fire and air’. Corpses are to be reflected for mindfulness in 9 ways comparing various kinds of corpse with our own body”. MahāsatipatthānaSutta: The Greater Discourse on Steadfast Mindfulness. Trans.Jolika, U and Dhamminda, U. Buddha Dharma Education Association Inc., 1986, pp. 8-18.
Visud.i.p 132.“yatthayasmāiriyapathapabbaṁcatusampajaňňasabbaṁdhatumanasikārapabbantiImānitῑnivipassanāvasenavuttāni. Ᾱnapānapabbaṁpanapatikulamanasikārapabbaňcaimānevetthadvesamadhivasenavuttāni”as cited by MulaMinGoneZetawonSayadaw, Thu Dani PaungChut, p. 55.
MulaMinGoneZetawonSayadaw, p. 56.
ibid, p. 1-3
ibid, p. 35.
ibid, p. 31.Cited “ it is to realize the eyes, ear, hose, longue, body and mind” in Patis, p. 7 and “ it is to caution just seeing at sight, just hearing at voice, just awareness at moments of enjoying odour, taste, touch and consciousness” as prescribed in MN. i. p. 71, MalukyaputtaSutta.
Visud.ii., p. 255.
 DN. ii., pp. 231- 234.
MulaMinGoneZetawonSayadaw, p. 35.
ibid, pp. 286- 287; DN A.i., p. 165.
ibid, p. 207.
MahasiSayadaw, Trans. U Pe Thein, MahāsatipatthānaVipassanā, pp. 21-22.
MulaMinGoneZetawonSayadaw, pp. 57- 59.
ibid, p. 287; MN.ii, pp. 231-234.
 ibid, p. 61; Jataka-A.i. p. 424, as cited by MulaMinGoneZetawonSayadaw, p. 231.
MulaMinGoneZetawonSayadaw, p. 63.
 ibid, pp. 284- 285.
ibid, p. 62.
ibid, pp. 64-77, 300.
SN.i. p. 300.
SN.ii., p. 296; patisam, p. 7.
DN. ii.p. 231.
MN. iii. P. 327.
MulaMinGoneZetawonSayadaw, pp. 98-100.
ibid, p. 95.
Abhi-A.i. p. 106; Mulamn Gun Sayadaw, p. 281; Janakabhivamsa, “Thin Gyo Bar Thar Tikar”, p. 222.
MulaMinGoneZetawonSayadaw, pp. 261, 305.
ibid, pp. 279-280.
ibid, p. 303.
MN.iii., p. 336.
Paṭis, pp. 7-9; DN.ii.p. 236.
Janeya, “ VippassanaAlut Pay Tayadaw”, pp. 48-49.
MN.ii. p. 205.
KanNyunt, “ MogokeVipassanan Chu PwarNei”, p. 500.
Visud-A.ii. p. 3331 as quoted by MulaminMunSayadaw, p. 51.
MulaMinGoneZetawonSayadaw, pp. 28-29.
MulaMinGoneZetawonSayadaw, p. 40.
Janakabhivamsa, “A ChayPyu ThinGyo”, p. 74.
MN.iii. p. 335 as citted by Mulamin GunSayadaw, p.46
Dhp, p. 13.
MulaMinGoneZetawonSayadaw, pp. 208-209.
ibid, pp. 42-45, 224-225.
 MN. iii. P. 336 as cited by MulaMinGoneZetawonSayadaw, p. 46. See also MulaMinGoneZetawonSayadaw, pp. 45-49.
SN.i. p. 13.
MulaMinGoneZetawonSayadaw, pp. 33-40.
Paṭis, pp. 169 -170 as cited byMulaMinGoneZetawonSayadaw, pp. 230-235.
MN.ii. p. 70.
 Five door consciousness are – eye consciousness, ear consciousness, nose consciousness, tongue consciousness, body consciousness.Vicittasārābhivaṁsa, ParamatthaThankhitAphyaySakapyayKyam, p. 49. See also pp.52, 66-77.
Dhp, p. 38.